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Geography

Faculty List
  • E.C. Relph, B.A., M.Phil. (London), Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor Emeritus
  • M. F. Bunce, B.A. (Sheffield), Ph.D. (Sheffield), Associate Professor Emeritus
  • J. R. Miron, B.A. (Queen's), M.A. (Penn.), M.Sc. (pl.), Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor
  • A. Sorensen, B.F.A. (Nova Scotia College of Art and Design), M.Sc., Ph.D. (London), Professor
  • M. Hunter, B.A. (Sussex), M.A. (Univ. of Natal), Ph.D. (Univ. California Berkeley), Associate Professor
  • T. Kepe, B.Agric. (Fort Hare), M.Sc. (Guelph), Ph.D. (Western Cape), Associate Professor
  • K. MacDonald, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. (Waterloo), Associate Professor
  • M. Mahtani, B.A. (Dalhousie), Ph.D. (London), Associate Professor
  • M. Buckley, B.Sc., M.E.S. (York), Ph.D (Oxford), Assistant Professor
  • S.C. Bunce, B.A. (Guelph), M.E.S. Pl. (York), Ph.D. (York), Assistant Professor
  • M. Ekers, B.Sc., (Lakehead), M.E.S. (York), Ph.D. (Oxford), Assistant Professor
  • S. Farber, B.A. (McGill), M.S.A (Ryerson), Ph.D (McMaster), Assistant Professor
  • J. Han, B.A., Ph.D. (Univ. California, Berkeley), Assistant Professor
  • S. Mollett, B.A., M.E.S. (York), Ph.D. (Toronto), Assistant Professor
  • R. Narayanareddy, MESc. (Yale University), Ph.D. (Minnesota), Assistant Professor
  • G. Brauen, B.Sc (New Brunswick), M.C.S, Ph.D (Carleton), Lecturer

Chair: Andre Sorensen
Program Advisor: Marishka Pereira Email: ggr-advisor@utsc.utoronto.ca

Geography is a broad-ranging subject. As a social science it is concerned with the spatial patterns of human activity and the character of regions and places. It is a subject which is well placed to explore the complex relationships between society and the natural environment as well as the social and economic problems of human land use and settlement. It therefore complements other Programs such as: City Studies, Environmental Science, Political Science, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics for Management Studies and International Development Studies. Geography courses are also listed as options in several University of Toronto Scarborough Programs including City Studies, Economics, Enivromental Studies, Health Studies, International Development Studies, Public Policy and Women's and Gender Studies.

Human Geography Areas of Focus

*Indicates a course that crosses two areas of focus.

Urban Geography Social/Cultural Geography Environmental Geography
GGRB05H3 Urban Geography
GGRC10H3 Urbanization and Development
GGRC11H3 Current Topics in Urban Geography
GGRC12H3 Transportation Geography
GGRC13H3 Urban Political Geography
GGRC27H3 Location and Spatial Development
GGRC33H3 The Toronto Region
GGRC34H3 Crowd-sourced Urban Geographies
GGRC40H3 Megacities and Global Urbanization
GGRC45H3 Local Geographies of Globalization*
GGRC48H3 Geographies of Urban Poverty
GGRC50H3 Geographies of Education*
GGRD14H3 Social Justice and the City*
GGRD25H3 Research Seminar in Urban Spaces
GGRB13H3 Social Geography
GGRB28H3 Geographies of Disease
GGRB55H3 Cultural Geography
GGRC02H3 Population Geography
GGRC09H3 Current Topics in Social Geography
GGRC24H3 Socio-Natures and the Cultural Politics of ‘The Environment’*
GGRC45H3 Local Geographies of Globalization*
GGRC49H3 Land, Development, and Struggle in Latin America*
GGRC50H3 Geographies of Education*
GGRC56H3 Spaces of Travel: Unsettling Migration, Tourism, and Everyday Mobilities
GGRD09H3 Feminist Geographies
GGRD10H3 Health and Sexuality
GGRD14H3 Social Justice and the City*
GGRD19H3 Spaces of Multiraciality: Critical Mixed Race Theory
GGRB21H3 Environments and Environmentalisms
GGRC21H3 Current Topics in Environmental Geography
GGRC22H3 Political Ecology Theory and Applications
GGRC24H3 Socio-Natures and the Cultural Politics of ‘The Environment’*
GGRC25H3 Land Reform and Development
GGRC26H3 Geographies of Environmental Governance
GGRC44H3 Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development
GGRC49H3 Land, Development, and Struggle in Latin America*
GGRD08H3 Research Seminar in Environmental Geography

Geography Programs

MAJOR PROGRAM IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (ARTS)

A Major Program for students interested in Human Geography as an academic discipline. This Program equips students with the knowledge and skills needed to understand contemporary social science thought in the context of the communities, societies, and economies formed by human populations, and the ways in which location, landscape, and spatial context shape (and are shaped by) social structures, functioning, and behaviour.

Guidelines for 1st year course selection
Students intending to complete the Major Program in Human Geography are required to take two of GGRA02H3, GGRA03H3 or GGRA35H3. Enrollment in GGRA35H3 is limited and restricted to first year students. Students are also encouraged to take GGRA30H3 in their first year as a methods course.

Guidelines for Major Program completion:
Courses in the Major Program in Human Geography are divided into three main subdisciplinary areas of focus: Urban Geography, Social/Cultural Geography and Environmental Geography. Major students are encouraged to focus on two areas of focus after second year.


Program Requirements
The Major Program in Human Geography requires a total of 7.0 full credits as follows:

  1. Foundations of Human Geography (1.0 credit from the following):
    GGRA02H3 The Geography of Global Processes
    GGRA03H3 Cities and Environments
    GGRA35H3 The Great Scarborough Mashup: People, Place, Community, Experience

  2. Theory and Concepts in Human Geography (2.0 credit):
    GGRB02H3 The Logic of Geographical Thought
    and
    1.5 credits from:
    GGRB05H3 Urban Geography
    GGRB13H3 Social Geography
    GGRB21H3 Environments and Environmentalisms
    GGRB28H3 Geographies of Disease
    GGRB55H3 Cultural Geography

  3. Methods (1.0 credit from the following):
    GGRA30H3 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Empirical Reasoning
    GGRB03H3 Writing Geography: From Good to Great
    GGRB30H3 Fundamentals of GIS I
    GGRB32H3 Fundamentals of GIS II
    GGRC31H3 Qualitative Geographical Methods: Place and Ethnography
    STAB22H3 Statistics I or equivalent

  4. Applications (2.5 credits):
    2.5 credits at the C- and/or D-level in GGR courses

  5. Advanced Applications (0.5 credit):
    0.5 credit at the D-level in GGR courses
MAJOR PROGRAM IN PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (ARTS)

This is an interdepartmental program leading to a B.A. degree in which students combine courses in human geography (GGR prefix) with courses in physical geography (EES prefix).

Guidelines for 1st year course selection
EES courses presume a background in physical sciences and mathematics. It is recommended that first year students take EESA01H3, EESA06H3, GGRA02H3 and GGRA03H3 and at least 1.0 full credit from among [BIOA01H3 & BIOA02H3], [CHMA10H3 & CHMA11H3], [PHYA10H3 or PHYA11H3], [MATA30H3 & MATA35H3/A36H3/A37H3].

Program Requirements
The Major Program in Physical and Human Geography requires the completion of a total of 8.0 full credits of which 4.0 credits are to be EES courses, and 4.0 credits are to be GGR or CIT courses. Among these 8.0 credits, the student must include:

  1. 2.0 credits: EESA01H3, EESA06H3, GGRA02H3 & GGRA03H3
  2. At least 1.5 credits from among EESB02H3, EESB03H3, EESB04H3, EESB05H3, & EESB15H3
  3. At least 1.5 credits from among CITB01H3, GGRB02H3, GGRB05H3, GGRB13H3, GGRB21H3, GGRB28H3 and GGRB55H3
  4. At least 1.0 credit at the C- or D-level from among EES courses
  5. At least 1.0 credit at the C- or D-level from among GGR or CIT courses
  6. At least one additional 0.5 credit with a GGR or CIT prefix
  7. At least one additional 0.5 credit with an EES prefix
MINOR PROGRAM IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE (GIS) (ARTS)

GIS is based on the integration of digital spatial data, mapping software, and spatial analysis tools. GIS has been a core method in Geographical research for almost two decades, but is also rapidly growing in importance outside Geography, in part because of the huge amounts of new spatial data being generated by ubiquitous sensors such as smart phones with GPS locators.

A growing number of research areas and careers require knowledge of GIS and cartographic presentation skills. This minor program provides training in the theory and practical application of Geographic Information Science and systems for spatial analysis, spatial data management, and cartographic representation, and is an excellent option for students pursuing Human Geography, City Studies, Critical Development Studies, Historical and Cultural Studies, Sociology, Political Science, Anthropology, Environmental Studies and Environmental Science.

Program Requirements
This program requires the completion of 4.0 credits as follows:

1.    1.0 credit from ONE of the following discipline groups:

a. Human Geography
GGRA02H3 The Geography of Global Processes
GGRA03H3 Cities and Environments
CITB02H3 Foundations of City Studies

b. Anthropology
ANTA01H3 Introduction to Anthropology: Becoming Human
ANTA02H3 Introduction to Anthropology: Society, Culture and Language

c. Environmental Science
EESA01H3 Introduction to Environmental Science
EESA06H3 Introduction to Planet Earth

d. History
HISA04H3 Themes in World History I
HISA05H3 Themes in World History II

e. International Development Studies
IDSA01H3 Introduction to International Development Studies
IDSA02H3 Experiencing Development in Africa

f. Political Science
POLA01H3 Critical Issues in Politics I
POLA02H3 Critical Issues in Politics II

g. Sociology
SOCA01H3 Introduction to Sociology I
SOCA02H3 Introduction to Sociology II

2.  2.0 credits:
GGRA30H3 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Empirical Reasoning
GGRB30H3 Fundamentals of GIS I
GGRB32H3 Fundamentals of GIS II
GGRC30H3 Advanced GIS

3.  0.5 credit:
GGRD30H3 GIS Research Project

4.  0.5 credit from the following*:
EESC03H3 Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing
GGRC12H3 Transportation Geography
GGRC27H3 Location and Spatial Development
GGRC32H3 Essential Spatial Analysis
GGRC34H3 Crowd-sourced Urban Geographies
GGRD01H3 Supervised Research Project
GGRD08H3 Research Seminar in Environmental Geography
GGRD25H3 Research Seminar in Urban Spaces
GGRD31H3 Independent Research Project
CITD01H3 City Issues and Strategies

*Permission to count these courses towards the Minor in Geographic Information Science (GIS) must be received from the Departmental Chair or the Program Advisor, and will be granted in cases where the student’s major research project employs GIS research methods.

MINOR PROGRAM IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (ARTS)

The minor program is designed to give students a general introduction to Human Geography. Students are encouraged to select their B-, C-, and D -evel courses from one of the three areas of focus: Environmental, Urban or Social/Cultural Geography.

Program Requirements

This program requires the completion of 4.0 full credits in Geography including:
1.  GGRA02H3 and GGRA03H3
2.  An additional 3.0 credits in GGR courses, of which at least 1.0 credit must be at the C- or D-level

Geography Courses


GGRA02H3    The Geography of Global Processes

Globalization from the perspective of human geography. The course examines how the economic, social, political, and environmental changes that flow from the increasingly global scale of human activities affect spatial patterns and relationships, the character of regions and places, and the quality of life of those who live in them.

Exclusion: GGR107H, (GGR107Y), GGR117Y
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRA03H3    Cities and Environments

An introduction to the characteristics of modern cities and environmental issues, and their interconnections. Linkages between local and global processes are emphasized. Major topics include urban forms and systems, population change, the complexity of environmental issues such as climate change and water scarcity, planning for sustainable cities.

Exclusion: GGR107H, (GGR107Y), GGR117Y
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRA30H3    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Empirical Reasoning

Confirmatory causal modeling and GIS; map as model; GIS data input; cartographic and GIS data structures; data errors and editing; elementary spatial analysis; measurement; map comparison; classification; statistical surfaces; spatial arrangement; privacy issues.

Breadth Requirement: Quantitative Reasoning

GGRA35H3    The Great Scarborough Mashup: People, Place, Community, Experience

Scarborough is a place of rapidly changing social geographies, and now contains one of the world’s most extraordinary mixes of people. What do these changes mean, how can we understand and interpret them? This course introduces Human Geography as the study of people, place, and community through field trips, interviews, and guest lectures.

Enrolment Limits: 30; Restricted to first year undergraduate students.
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRB02H3    The Logic of Geographical Thought

Many of today's key debates - for instance, on globalization, the environment, and cities - draw heavily from geographical thinking and what some have called the "spatial turn" in the social sciences. This course introduces the most important methodological and theoretical aspects of contemporary geographical and spatial thought, and serves as a foundation for other upper level courses in Geography.

Prerequisite: Any 4 credits
Enrolment Limits: 150
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRB03H3    Writing Geography: From Good to Great

This course aims to develop critical reading and writing skills of human geography students. Through a variety of analytical, reflexive, and descriptive writing assignments, students will practice how to draft, revise, and edit their writing on spatial concepts. Students will learn how to conduct research for literature reviews, organize materials, and produce scholarly papers. They will also learn to cultivate their writing voice by engaging in a range of writing styles and forms such as blog posts, critical commentaries, travelogues, field notes, and research briefs. The course emphasizes writing clearly, succinctly, and logically.

Prerequisite: Any 4.0 credits
Breadth Requirement: Arts, Literature & Language
NOTE: Priority will be given to students enrolled in the Major program in Human Geography. Additional students will be admitted as space permits.

GGRB05H3    Urban Geography

This course will develop understanding of the geographic nature of urban systems and the internal spatial patterns and activities in cities. Emphasis is placed on the North American experience with some examples from other regions of the world. The course will explore the major issues and problems facing contemporary urban society and the ways they are analysed.
Area of Focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 4 credits
Exclusion: GGR124H, (GGR124Y)
Enrolment Limits: 150
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRB13H3    Social Geography

The reciprocal relations between spatial structures and social identities. The course examines the role of social divisions such as class, 'race'/ethnicity, gender and sexuality in shaping the social geographies of cities and regions. Particular emphasis is placed on space as an arena for the construction of social relations and divisions.
Area of Focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 4 credits
Enrolment Limits: 150
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRB21H3    Environments and Environmentalisms

This foundational course explores different conceptions of 'the environment' as they have changed through space and time. It also analyzes the emergence of different variants of environmentalism and their contemporary role in shaping environmental policy and practice.
Area of Focus: Environmental Geography

Exclusion: GGR222H, GGR223H
Enrolment Limits: 150
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRB28H3    Geographies of Disease

Examines the geographical distribution of disease and the spatial processes in which diseases are embedded. Themes include spatial theories of health and disease and uneven development and health. Special attention will be given to the geographical dimension of the HIV pandemic.
Area of Focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 4 credits
Enrolment Limits: 150
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRB30H3    Fundamentals of GIS I

This course provides a practical introduction to digital mapping and spatial analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The course is designed to provide hands-on experience using GIS to analyse spatial data, and create maps that effectively communicate data meanings. Students are instructed in GIS methods and approaches that are relevant not only to Geography but also to many other disciplines. In the lectures, we discuss mapping and analysis concepts and how you can apply them using GIS software. In the practice exercises and assignments, you then learn how to do your own data analysis and mapping, gaining hands-on experience with ArcGIS software, the most widely used GIS software.

Exclusion: GGR272H, GGR278H
Recommended Preparation: GGRA30H3
Enrolment Limits: 150
Breadth Requirement: Quantitative Reasoning

GGRB32H3    Fundamentals of GIS II

This course builds on GGRB30 Fundamentals of GIS, continuing the examination of theoretical and analytical components of GIS and spatial analysis, and their application through lab assignments. The course covers digitizing, topology, vector data models, remote sensing and raster data models and analysis, geoprocessing, map design and cartography, data acquisition, metadata, and data management, and web mapping.

Prerequisite: GGRB30H3
Enrolment Limits: 150
Breadth Requirement: Quantitative Reasoning

GGRB55H3    Cultural Geography

The course introduces core concepts in cultural geography such as race and ethnicity, identity and difference, public and private, landscape and environment, faith and community, language and tradition, and mobilities and social change. Emphasis will be on cross-disciplinary, critical engagement with current events, pop culture, and visual texts including comics, photos, and maps.
Area of Focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 4.0 credits
Enrolment Limits: 150
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC01H3    Supervised Readings in Human Geography

An independent supervised reading course open only to students in the Major Program in Human Geography. An independent literature review research project will be carried out under the supervision of an individual faculty member.

Prerequisite: 10 full credits including completion of the following requirements for the Major Program in Human Geography: 1) Introduction, 2) Theory and Concepts, 3) Methods; & a cumulative GPA of at least 2.5.

GGRC02H3    Population Geography

An examination of the geographical dimension to human population through the social dynamics of fertility, mortality and migration. Themes include disease epidemics, international migration, reproductive technologies, and changing family structure.
Area of focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR323H, GGR208H
Recommended Preparation: GGRB02H3 or CITB02H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC09H3    Current Topics in Social Geography

Examination and discussion of current trends and issues in social geography, with particular emphasis on recent developments in concepts and methods. This course is an unique opportunity to explore a particular topic in-depth, the specific content will vary from year to year.
Area of focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC10H3    Urbanization and Development

Examines global urbanization processes and the associated transformation of governance, social, economic, and environmental structures particularly in the global south. Themes include theories of development, migration, transnational flows, socio-spatial polarization, postcolonial geographies of urbanization.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB05H3 or CITB02H3 or IDSA01H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC11H3    Current Topics in Urban Geography

Examination and discussion of current trends and issues in urban geography, with particular emphasis on recent developments in concepts and methods. This course is an unique opportunity to explore a particular topic in-depth, the specific content will vary from year to year.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB05H3 or CITB02H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC12H3    Transportation Geography

Transportation systems play a fundamental role in shaping social, economic and environmental outcomes in a region. This course explores geographical perspectives on the development and functioning of transportation systems, interactions between transportation and land use, and costs and benefits associated with transportation systems including: mobility, accessibility, congestion, pollution, and livability.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits including GGRA30H3 and [GGRB05H3 or CITB02H3]
Exclusion: GGR370H, GGR424H
Recommended Preparation: GGRB30H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC13H3    Urban Political Geography

Geographical approach to the politics of contemporary cities with emphasis on theories and structures of urban political processes and practices. Includes nature of local government, political powers of the property industry, big business and community organizations and how these shape the geography of cities.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB05H3 or CITB02H3 or PPGC66H3/(POLC66H3)
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC21H3    Current Topics in Environmental Geography

Examination and discussion of current trends and issues in environmental geography, with particular emphasis on recent developments in concepts and methods. This course is an unique opportunity to explore a particular topic in-depth, the specific content will vary from year to year.
Area of focus: Environmental Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB21H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC22H3    Political Ecology Theory and Applications

Explores how politics, the economy, history and culture shape, and are shaped by interactions of people with the physical environment. Analysis moves beyond the roles government and interest groups in shaping environmental policies, to expanding our understanding of 'politics' in (i) environmental discourses and knowledge; (ii) economic systems; (iii) regimes of natural resource ownership and use; and (iv) everyday struggles within and between communities and interest groups as they shape human-nature relationships.
Area of focus: Environmental Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB21H3 or IDSB02H3 or ESTB01H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC24H3    Socio-Natures and the Cultural Politics of 'The Environment'

Explores the processes through which segments of societies come to understand their natural surroundings, the social relations that produce those understandings, popular representations of nature, and how 'the environment' serves as a consistent basis of social struggle and contestation.
Areas of focus: Environmental Geography; Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB21H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC25H3    Land Reform and Development

Land reform, which entails the redistribution of private and public lands, is broadly associated with struggles for social justice. It embraces issues concerning how land is transferred (through forceful dispossession, law, or markets), and how it is currently held. Land inequalities exist all over the world, but they are more pronounced in the developing world, especially in countries that were affected by colonialism. Land issues, including land reform, affect most development issues.
Area of focus: Environmental Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB21H3 or AFSB01H3 or IDSB02H3 or ESTB01H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC26H3    Geographies of Environmental Governance

This course addresses the translation of environmentalisms into formalized processes of environmental governance; and examines the development of environmental institutions at different scales, the integration of different forms of environmental governance, and the ways in which processes of governance relate to forms of environmental practice and management.
Area of focus: Environmental Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB21H3 or ESTB01H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC27H3    Location and Spatial Development

Location of a firm; market formation and areas; agricultural location; urban spatial equilibrium; trade and spatial equilibrium; locational competition; equilibrium for an industry; trade and location.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: MGEA01H3/(ECMA01H3) & [(GGRB02H3 & GGRB05H3) or (CITB01H3 & CITB02H3)] or [[MGEB01H3/(ECMB01H3) or MGEB02H3/(ECMB02H3)] & [MGEB05H3/(ECMB05H3) or MGEB06H3/(ECMB06H3)]]
Exclusion: (GGRB27H3), GGR220Y
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC30H3    Advanced GIS

This course covers advanced theoretical and practical issues of using GIS systems for research and spatial analysis. Students will learn how to develop and manage GIS research projects, create and analyze three-dimensional surfaces, build geospatial models, visualize geospatial data, and perform advanced spatial analysis. Lectures introduce concepts and labs implement them.

Prerequisite: GGRB32H3
Exclusion: GGR373H
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Quantitative Reasoning

GGRC31H3    Qualitative Geographical Methods: Place and Ethnography

Explores the practice of ethnography (i.e. participant observation) within and outside the discipline of geography, and situates this within current debates on methods and theory. Topics include: the history of ethnography, ethnography within geography, current debates within ethnography, the "field," and ethnography and "development."

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: History, Philosophy & Cultural Studies

GGRC32H3    Essential Spatial Analysis

This course builds on introductory statistics and GIS courses by introducing students to the core concepts and methods of spatial analysis. With an emphasis on spatial thinking in an urban context, topics such as distance decay, distance metrics, spatial interaction, spatial distributions, and spatial autocorrelation will be used to quantify spatial patterns and identify spatial processes. These tools are the essential building blocks for the quantitative analysis of urban spatial data.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits including [STAB22H3 and GGRB30H3]
Exclusion: GGR276H
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Quantitative Reasoning

GGRC33H3    The Toronto Region

This course examines issues of urban form and structure, urban growth and planning in the Toronto region. Current trends in population, housing, economy, environment, governance, transport, urban design and planning practices at the local level and the regional scale will be examined critically.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB05H3 or CITB02H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC34H3    Crowd-sourced Urban Geographies

Significant recent transformations of geographic knowledge are being generated by the ubiquitous use of smartphones and other distributed sensors, while web-based platforms such as Open Street Map and Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) have made crowd-sourcing of geographical data relatively easy. This course will introduce students to these new geographical spaces, approaches to creating them, and the implications for local democracy and issues of privacy they pose.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: GGRB05H3 or GGRB30H3
Recommended Preparation: GGRB32H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC40H3    Megacities and Global Urbanization

The last 50 years have seen dramatic growth in the global share of population living in megacities over 10 million population, with most growth in the global south. Such giant cities present distinctive infrastructure, health, water supply, and governance challenges, which are increasingly central to global urban policy and health.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Exclusion: (CITC40H3)
Recommended Preparation: GGRB05H3 or CITB02H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC41H3    Current Topics in Human Geography

Examination and discussion of current trends and issues in human geography, with particular emphasis on recent developments in concepts and methods. This course is an unique opportunity to explore a particular topic in-depth, the specific content will vary from year to year.

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB20H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC44H3    Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development

Deals with two main topics: the origins of environmental problems in the global spread of industrial capitalism, and environmental conservation and policies. Themes include: changes in human-environment relations, trends in environmental problems, the rise of environmental awareness and activism, environmental policy, problems of sustainable development.
Area of focus: Environmental Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR233Y, (GGRB20H3)
Recommended Preparation: GGRB21H3 or IDSB02H3 or ESTB01H3
Enrolment Limits: 80
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC45H3    Local Geographies of Globalization

Examines the localized consequences of global processes. Toronto will be used as a site for understanding how individuals interact with and experience the effects of globalizing forces differently based on their unique conditions of life and how they respond to the challenges and opportunities of a globalized world.
Areas of focus: Urban or Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB05H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC48H3    Geographies of Urban Poverty

How have social and economic conditions deteriorated for many urban citizens? Is the geographic gap widening between the rich and the poor? This course will explore the following themes: racialization of poverty, employment and poverty, poverty and gender socio-spatial polarization, and housing and homelessness.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB05H3 or CITB02H3 or IDSA01H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC49H3    Land, Development, and Struggle in Latin America

The politics of land and territorial rights are a central theme in international development practice in Latin America.  This course attends to how development policy shapes access to, control of, and struggles over land and natural resources. The land and territorial struggles of women and indigenous, Afro-descendant and campesino communities inform course content.
Areas of focus: Environmental or Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB13H3 or GGRB21H3 or IDSA01H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC50H3    Geographies of Education

Explores the social geography of education, especially in cities. Topics include geographical educational inequalities; education, class and race; education, the family, and intergenerational class immobility; the movement of children to attend schools; education and the ‘right to the city.’
Areas of focus: Urban or Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB05H3 or GGRB13H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC54H3    Human Geography Field Trip

Provides an opportunity to engage in a field trip and field research work on a common research topic. The focus will be on: preparation of case study questions; methods of data collection including interviews, archives, and observation; snowballing contacts; and critical case-study analysis in a final report.

Prerequisite: GGRB02H3 and 1.0 additional credit at the B-level in GGR
Enrolment Limits: 30; Restricted to students in the Human Geography Major.
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRC56H3    Spaces of Travel: Unsettling Migration, Tourism, and Everyday Mobilities

Cultural Politics and political economy of travel and mobilities across time and space. Covers migration and immigration, tourism and travel encounters, diaspora and displacement, religious missions and pilgrimages, study abroad and working holiday, transportation and communication technologies, and narratives of time travel. Addresses how these extraordinary and everyday mobilities and immobilities inform geographies of race, gender, sexuality, and nation.
Area of focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: Any 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGRB13H3 or CITB02H3 or SOCB60H3
Enrolment Limits: 60
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRD01H3    Supervised Research Project

An independent studies course open only to students in the Major Program in Human Geography. An independent studies project will be carried out under the supervision of an individual faculty member.

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including GGRB02H3

GGRD08H3    Research Seminar in Environmental Geography

Designed for final-year Human Geography Majors, this seminar is devoted to analysis and discussion of advanced theoretical and methodological issues in Environmental Geography. Specific content will vary from year to year. Seminar format with active student participation.
Area of focus: Environmental Geography

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including GGRB21H3
Enrolment Limits: 20
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRD09H3    Feminist Geographies

How do gender relations shape different spaces? We will explore how feminist geographers have approached these questions from a variety of scales - from the home, to the body, to the classroom, to the city, to the nation, drawing on the work of feminist geographers.
Area of focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including [GGRB13H3 or CITB02H3 or WSTB05H3]
Enrolment Limits: 20
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRD10H3    Health and Sexuality

Examines links between health and human sexuality. Particularly explores sexually transmitted infections. Attention will be given to the socially and therefore spatially constructed nature of sexuality. Other themes include sexual violence, masculinities and health, reproductive health, and transnational relationships and health. Examples will be taken from a variety of countries.
Area of focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including [GGRB13H3 or IDSB04H3 or WSTB05H3]
Enrolment Limits: 20
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRD11H3    Advanced Geographical Theory and Methods

Designed for final-year Human Geography Majors, this reading-intensive seminar course develops analytical and methodological skills in socio-spatial analysis. We explore major theoretical/methodological traditions in geography including positivism, humanism, Marxism, and feminism, and major analytical categories such as place, scale, and networks. Particularly recommended for students intending to apply to graduate school.

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including GGRB02H3
Enrolment Limits: 20
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRD12H3    Seminar in Selected Topics in Human Geography

Designed for final-year Human Geography Majors, this seminar is devoted to analysis and discussion of current theoretical and methodological issues in human geography. This course is an unique opportunity to explore a particular topic in-depth, the specific content will vary from year to year. Seminar format with active student participation.

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including GGRB02H3
Enrolment Limits: 20

GGRD14H3    Social Justice and the City

Examines links between politics of difference, social justice and cities. Covers theories of social justice and difference with a particular emphasis placed on understanding how contemporary capitalism exacerbates urban inequalities and how urban struggles such as Occupy Wall Street seek to address discontents of urban dispossession. Examples of urban social struggles will be drawn from global North and South.
Areas of focus: Urban or Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including [GGRB05H3 or GGRB13H3 or CITB02H3 or IDSB06H3]
Enrolment Limits: 20
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRD19H3    Spaces of Multiraciality: Critical Mixed Race Theory

From Tiger Woods to Mariah Carey, the popular mixed race phenomenon has captured the popular imagination and revealed the contradictory logic of categorization underpinning racial divisions. We will explore the complexities of racial identity formation to illuminate the experiences of those who fall outside the prevailing definitions of racial identities.
Area of focus: Social/Cultural Geography

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including [GGRB13H3 or SOCB60H3]
Exclusion: (GGRC19H3)
Enrolment Limits: 20
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

GGRD25H3    Research Seminar in Urban Spaces

Designed for final-year Human Geography Majors, this seminar is devoted to analysis and discussion of current theoretical and methodological issues in urban geography. Specific content will vary from year to year. Seminar format with active student participation.
Area of focus: Urban Geography

Prerequisite: 13.0 credits including [GGRB05H3 or CITB02H3]
Enrolment Limits: 20
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences
NOTE: Priority will be given to Geography Majors with the highest CGPA.

GGRD30H3    GIS Research Project

Students will design, manage and complete a research project using GIS. Students will work in teams of 4-6 to pose a research question, acquire a dataset, and organize and analyze the data to answer their question. The course will teach research design, project management, data analysis, team work, and presentation of final results.

Prerequisite: GGRC30H3
Exclusion: GGR462H
Enrolment Limits: 20
Breadth Requirement: Quantitative Reasoning

GGRD31H3    Independent Research Project

Independent research extension to one of the courses already completed in Human Geography. Enrolment requires written permission from a faculty supervisor and Associate Chair, Human Geography. Only open to students who have completed 13.0 credits and who are enrolled in the Human Geography Major, Human and Physical Geography Major programs, or Minor Program in GIS sponsored by the Department of Human Geography.

Prerequisite: Any 13.0 credits
Breadth Requirement: Social & Behavioural Sciences

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