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Professor of Ecology & Evolution and Physiology

Selected Research Publications

Reprints available upon request for papers between 2011-2017.

PDFs available for those between 1998-2010 as indicated below.

Earlier research papers by the Boonstra lab can be obtained as pdfs from the following url:



Boonstra, R., A. Dusek, J. Lane, and S. Boutin. 2017. When the ball is in the female’s court: how the scramble-competition mating system of the North American red squirrel has shaped male physiology and testosterone dynamics. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 252:162-172.

Boonstra, R., C.J. Krebs, and K. Cowcill. 2017. Responses of key understory plants in the boreal forests of western North America to natural versus anthropogenic nitrogen levels. Forest Ecology and Management 401:45-54.

Fauteux, D., G. Gauthier, D. Berteaux, C. Bosson, R. Palme, and R. Boonstra. 2017. Assessing stress in arctic lemmings: fecal metabolites reflect free corticosterone levels. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.90:370-38.

Hobbie EA, Shamhart JS, Sheriff M., Ouimette AP, Trappe M., Schuur EAG, Hobbie JE., Boonstra R., and Barnes B.M. 2017 Stable isotopes and radiocarbon assess variable importance of plants and fungi in diets of Arctic ground squirrels. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.49:487-500.

Johnsen, K., R. Boonstra, S. Boutin, O. Devineau, C.J. Krebs, and H.P. Andreassen. 2016. Surviving Winter: food, but not habitat, prevents crashes in cyclic vole populations in central Norway. Ecology and Evolution 7:115-124.

Krebs, C.J., R. Boonstra, and S. Boutin. 2017. Using experimentation to understand the 10-year snowshoe hare cycle in the boreal forests of North America. J. Animal Ecology. In press. 1 June 2017

Sheriff, M.J., A. Bell, R. Boonstra, B. Dantzer, S. Lavergne, K. E McGhee, K. J MacLeod, L. Winandy, C. Zimmer, and O. P Love 2017. Integrating ecological and evolutionary context in the study of maternal stress. Integrative and Comparative Biology. In press 6 july 2017

Sullivan, T.P., D.S. Sullivan, R. Boonstra, C.J. Krebs, and A Vyse. 2017. Mechanisms of population limitation in the southern red-backed vole in conifer forests of western North America: insights from a long-term study. J. Mammalogy. In press. 13 June 2017


Boonstra, R., H.P. Andreassen, S. Boutin, J. Husek, R. A. Ims, C.J. Krebs, C. Skarpe, and P. Wabakken. 2016. Why do boreal forest ecosystems of Northwestern Europe differ from those of Western North America? Bioscience 66:722-734. (open access)

Desantis, L.M. J. Bowman, C.V. Lahoda, R. Boonstra, and G. Burness. 2016. Responses of New World flying squirrels to the acute stress of capture and handling. Journal of Mammalogy 97:80-88.

Edwards, P.D .and R. Boonstra. 2016. Coping with pregnancy after 9 months in the dark: post-hibernation buffering of high maternal stress in arctic ground squirrels. General and Comparative Endocrinology 232:1-6.

Edwards, P.D., R. Palme, and R. Boonstra. 2016. Seasonal programming, not competition or testosterone, drives stress-axis changes in a partially-semelparous mammal. Hormones and Behavior 85:96-101.

Fontanesi et al. (49 authors). 2016. LaGomiCs - Lagomorph Genomics Consortium: An international collaborative effort for sequencing the genomes of an entire mammalian order. Journal of Heredity107:295-308.

Stothart, M.R., C.B. Bobbie, A.I. Schulte-Hostedde, R. Boonstra, R. Palme, N.C.S. Mykytczuk, and A.E.M. Newman. 2016. Stress and the microbiome: linking glucocorticoids to bacterial community dynamics in wild red squirrels. Biology Letters 12: 20150875,

Viblanc, V.A., C. Pasquaretta, C. Sueur, R. Boonstra, and F.S. Dobson. 2016. Aggression in Columbian ground squirrels: relationships with age, kinship, energy allocation, and fitness. Behavioral Ecology In Press.

Villete, P., C.J. Krebs, T S. Jung, and R. Boonstra. 2016. Can camera trapping provide accurate estimates of small mammal (Myodes rutilus and Peromyscus maniculatus) density in the boreal forest? J. Mammalogy 97:32-40

Werner, J.R., E.A. Gillis, R. Boonstra, and C.J. Krebs 2016. You can hide, but you can't run: how apparent competition and predator responses led to the decline of Arctic ground squirrels in the boreal forests of southwest Yukon. PeerJ 4:e2303; DOI 10.7717/peerj.2303


Delehanty, B., S. Hossain, C.C. Jen, G.J. Crawshaw, and R. Boonstra. 2015. Measuring free glucocorticoids: Quantifying CBG binding affinity and its variation within and among mammal species. Conservation Physiology 3 (1): cov020
doi: 10.1093/conphys/cov020

Fletcher, Q.W., B. Dantzer, and R. Boonstra. 2016. The impact of reproductionon the stress axis of free-living male northern red backed voles (Myodes rutilus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 224:136-147.

Sheriff, M.J., E. McMahon, C.J. Krebs, and R. Boonstra. 2015. Predator-induced maternal stress and population demography in snowshoe hares: the more severe the risk, the longer the generational effect. Journal of Zoology 296:305-310.

Soma, K.K, N.M. Rendon, R. Boonstra, H.E. Albers, and G.E. Demas. 2015. DHEA effects on brain and behavior: insights from comparative studies of aggression. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology:145:261-272.

Werner, J.R., C.J. Krebs, S.A. Donker, R. Boonstra, and M.J. Sheriff. 2015. Arctic ground squirrel population collapse in the boreal forests of the southern Yukon. Wildlife Research 42: 176-184.


Boonstra, R., K. Mo, and D.A. Monks. 2014. Managing anabolic steroids in pre-hibernating Arctic Ground Squirrels: obtaining their benefits and avoiding their costs. Biology Letters 10: 20130734  doi:10.1098/rsbl.2014.0734

Boonstra, R., B. Dantzer., B. Delehanty, Q.E. Fletcher, and M.J. Sheriff. 2014. Equipped for life in the boreal forest: the role of the stress axis in mammals. Arctic 67, Supplement 1:82-97.

Dantzer, B., Q.E. Fletcher, R. Boonstra, and M.J. Sheriff. 2014. Measures of physiological stress: a transparent or opaque window into the status, management, and conservation of a species, Conservation Physiology 2: 1-18. doi:10.1093/conphys/cou02

Krebs, C.J., R. Boonstra, S. Boutin, A.R.E. Sinclair, J.N.M. Smith, B.S. Gilbert, K. Martin, M. O'Donoghue, and R. Turkington 2014. Trophic dynamics of the boreal forests of the Kluane Region. Arctic 67, Supplement 1:71-81.

Krebs, C.J., et al. 2014. What Factors Determine Cyclic Amplitude in the Snowshoe Hare Cycle? Canadian Journal of Zoology 92: 1039-1048.

Lavergne, S., P.O. McGowan, C.J. Krebs, and R. Boonstra. 2014. Impact of high predation risk on genome-wide hippocampal gene expression in snowshoe hares. Oecologia 176:613-624.

McArthur, C, P.B. Banks, R. Boonstra, and J.S. Forbey. 2014. The dilemma of foraging herbivores: dealing with food and fear. Oecologia 176:677-689.



Anson, J.R., C.R. Dickman, R. Boonstra, and T.S. Jessop. 2013.  Stress triangle: Do introduced predators exert indirect costs on native predators and prey. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060916

Boonstra, R. 2013 The ecology of stress: a marriage of disciplines. Functional Ecology 27:7-10.

Boonstra, R. 2013 Reality as the leading cause of stress: Rethinking the impact of chronic stress in nature. Functional Ecology 27:11-23.

Bosson, C.O., R. Palme, and R. Boonstra. 2013. Assessing the impact of live-trapping, confinement, and translocation on stresss and fate in eastern gray squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy. 94:1400-1411

Breuner, C.W., B. Delehanty, and R. Boonstra. 2013 Evaluating stress in natural populations of vertebrates: Total CORT is not good enough. Functional Ecology 27: 24-36.

Dantzer, A.G., A.E.M. Newman, R. Boonstra, R. Palme, S. Boutin, M.M. Humphries, and A.G. McAdam. 2013. Density triggers maternal hormones that increase adaptive offspring growth in a wild mammal. Science 340:1212-1217.

Desantis, L., B. Delehanty, J.T. Weir, and R. Boonstra 2013 Mediating free glucocorticoid levels in the blood of vertebrates: Are steroid-binding proteins always necessary? Functional Ecology 27:107-119.

Krebs, C.J., et al. 2013. Synchrony in the snowshoe hare cycle in northwestern North America, 1970-2012. Canadian Journal of Zoology 91:562-572.


Boonstra, R. and C.J. Krebs 2012 Population dynamics of red-backed voles (Myodes) in North America. Oecologa 168:601-620.

Bosson, C.O., Z. Islam, and R. Boonstra 2012 The impact of live trapping and trap model on the stress profiles of North American red squirrels. Journal of Zoology 288:159-169.

Delehanty, B. and R. Boonstra 2012 The benefits of baseline glucocorticoid measurements: maximal cortisol production under baseline conditions revealed in male Richardson’s ground squirrels (Urocitellus richardsonii).  General and Comparative Endocrinology 178:470-476.

Kupferschmidt, D.A., A.E. Newman, R. Boonstra, and S. Erb 2012 Antagonism of cannabinoid 1 receptors reverses the anxiety-like behavior induced by central injections of corticotropin-releasing factor and cocaine withdrawal. Neuroscience 204:125-133.

Montiglio, P.-O., F. Pelletier, R. Palme, D. Garant, M. Humphries, D. Réale, and R. Boonstra 2012 Non-invasive monitoring of fecal cortisol metabolites in the Eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus): validation and comparison of two enzyme immunoassays. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85:183-193.

Sheriff, M.J., H. Wheeler, S.C. Donker, C.J. Krebs, D.S. Hik, R. Palme, and R. Boonstra 2012 Mountain-top and valley-bottom experiences: the stress axis as an integrator of environmental variability in arctic ground squirrel populations. Journal of Zoology 287:65-75


Boonstra, R., A.J. Bradley, and B. Delehanty 2011 Preparing for hibernation in ground squirrels: adrenal androgen production in summer linked to environmental severity in winter. Functional Ecology 25:1348-1359.

Barker, J.M., R. Boonstra, and J.M. Wojtowicz 2011 From pattern to purpose: How comparative studies contribute to understanding the function of adult neurogenesis. European Journal of Neuroscience 34:963-977.

Clinchy, M., J. Schulkin, L.Y. Zanette, M.J. Sheriff, P.O. McGowan, and R. Boonstra 2011 The neurological ecology of fear: insights neuroscientists and ecologists have to offer one another. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 5: 1-6, Article 21 Open Access: DOI=10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00021, published 25 April 2011

Clinchy, M., L. Zanette, T.D., Charlier, A.E.M. Newman, K.L. Schmidt, R. Boonstra, and K.K. Soma 2011 .Multiple measures elucidate glucocorticoid responses to environmental variation in predation threat. Oecologia 166:607-614.
Dantzer, B., A.G. McAdam, R. Palme, M.M. Humphries, S. Boutin, and R. Boonstra 2011 Maternal androgens and behaviour in free-ranging North American red squirrels. Animal Behaviour 81:469-479.

Dantzer, B.,  A.G. McAdam, R. Palme, S. Boutin, and R. Boonstra 2011 How does diet affect fecal hormone metabolite concentrations? An experimental examination in red squirrels. General and Comparative Endocrinology 174:124-131.

Delehanty, B. and R. Boonstra 2011 Coping with intense reproductive aggression in male Arctic ground squirrels: the stress axis and its signature tell divergent stories. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84: 417-428.

Krebs C.J., R. Boonstra, S. Gilbert, D. Reid, A. J. Kenney, and E. J. Hofer 2011 Density estimation for small mammals from live trapping grids: rodents in northern Canada. Journal of Mammalogy 92:974-981.

Sheriff, M.J., B. Dantzer, B. Delehanty, R. Palme, and R. Boonstra 2011 Measuring stress in wildlife: techniques for quantifying glucocorticoids. Oecologia 166:869-887.
Sheriff, M.J., C.J. Krebs, and R. Boonstra 2011 From pattern to process: How fluctuating predation risk impacts the stress axis of snowshoe hares during the 10 year cycle. Oecologia 166:593-605.


Dantzer, B., R. Palme, Q.E. Fletcher, A.G. McAdam, S. Boutin, M.M. Humphries, and R. Boonstra 2010 Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.General and Comparative Endocrinology 167:279-286.
Krebs, C. J., K. Cowcill, R. Boonstra, and A.J. Kenney. 2010 Do changes in berry crops drive population fluctuations in small rodents in the southwestern Yukon?Journal of Mammalogy 91:500-509.
Johnson, K., R. Boonstra, and J. M. Wojtowicz. 2010 Hippocampal neurogenesis in food-storing rodents: the impact of age and spatial behaviour.Genes, Brains and Behavior 9:583-591.
Sheriff, M.J., C.J. Krebs, and R. Boonstra. 2010 Assessing stress in animal populations: do feces and plasma glucocorticoids tell the same story? General and Comparative Endocrinology 166:614-619
Smith, J. J., J.S. Millar, F.J. Longstaffe, and R. Boonstra. 2010 The effect of metabolic rate on stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope compositions in deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 88:36-42
Travers, M., M. Clinchy, R. Boonstra, L. Zanette, and T.D. Williams. 2010 Indirect predator effects on clutch size and the cost of egg production. Ecology Letters 13:980-988.


Sheriff, M.J., C.J. Krebs, and R. Boonstra. 2009 The sensitive hare: sublethal effects of predator stress on reproduction in snowshoe hares. Journal of Animal Ecology 78:1249-1258.
Krebs, C.J., R. Boonstra, K. Cowcill, and A.J. Kenney. 2009 Climatic determinants of berry crops in the boreal forest of the southwestern Yukon. Botany87: 401-408.
Sheriff, M.J., C. O. Bosson, C.J. Krebs, and R. Boonstra. 2009 A non-invasive technique for analyzing fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus)Journal of Comparative Physiology – B, 179:305-313.


Krebs, C.J, P. Carrier, S. Boutin, R. Boonstra, and E. Hofer. 2008. Mushroom crops in relation to weather in the southwestern Yukon. Botany 86:1497-1502.
Boonstra, R., J.E. Lane, S. Boutin,  A. Bradley, L. Desantis, A.E.M. Newman, and K.K. Soma 2008. DHEA levels in wild red squirrels: seasonal variation and effect of ACTH. General and Comparative Endocrinology 158:61–67.
Boonstra, R., L. Desantis, C.J. Krebs, and D. S. Hik. 2008. Climate and nutrient influences on the growth of white spruce trees in the boreal forests of the Yukon. Climate Research 36:131–140.


Amrein, I., R. Boonstra, H-P. Lipp, and J.M. Wojtowicz. 2007 Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Natural Populations of Mammals. In: Adult Neurogenesis. Edited by F. Gage, G. Kempermann, and H. Song. Chapter 30. pp 645-659. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Boonstra, R., J. M. Barker, J. Castillo, and Q. E. Fletcher. 2007. The role of the stress axis in life-history adaptations of rodents. In: Rodent Societies: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective. Edited by J. O. Wolff and P. W. Sherman, Chapter 12. pp 139-149. University of Chicago Press.


Boonstra, R. and C. J. Krebs. 2006. Population limitation of the northern red-backed vole in the boreal forests of northern Canada. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 1269–1284.
Fletcher, Q. E. and R. Boonstra. 2006. Do captive male meadow voles experience acute stress in response to weasel odour? Canadian Journal of Zoology 84: 583-588.
Fletcher, Q. E. and R. Boonstra. 2006. The impact of live-trapping on the stress response of the meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Journal of Zoology (London). 270:473-478.
Hodges, K.E., R. Boonstra, and C.J. Krebs 2006. Overwinter mass loss of snowshoe hares in Yukon: starvation, stress, adaptation or artifact? Journal of Animal Ecology 75:1-13.


Barker, J. M. and R. Boonstra 2005 Preparing for winter: divergence in the summer-autumn hematological profiles from representative species of the three tribes of the squirrel family. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 142:32-42.

Barker, J.M., J.M. Wojtowicz, and R. Boonstra. 2005. Where’s my dinner? Adult neurogenesis in free-living food-storing rodents. Genes, Brain and Behavior 4:89-98.

Boonstra, R. 2005. Equipped for life: the adaptive role of the stress axis in male mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 86:236-247.
Boonstra, R., R. Manzon, S. Mihok, and J. Helson. 2005. Hormetic effects of gamma radiation on the stress axis of natural populations of meadown voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24:334-343

Gillis, E.A., D.S. Hik, R. Boonstra, T.J. Karels, and C.J. Krebs. 2005. Being high is better: effects of elevation and habitat on arctic ground squirrel demography. Oikos 108:231-240.


Barker, J.M., J.M. Wojtowicz, and R. Boonstra. 2004. Where’s my dinner? Adult neurogenesis in free-living food-storing rodents. Genes, Brain and Behavior 4:89-98.
Boonstra, R. 2004. Coping with changing northern environments: the role of the stress axis in birds and mammals. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44:95-108.
Clinchy, M., L. Zanette, R. Boonstra, J.C. Wingfield and J.N.M. Smith. 2004. Balancing food and predator pressure induces chronic stress in songbirds. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London). Series B 271: 2473-2479.


Barker, J.M., R. Boonstra and A.I. Schulte-Hostedde. 2003. Age determination in yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus): a comparison of eye lens masses and bone sections. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1774-1779.

Boonstra, R. and L. Bowman. 2003. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on PCB contaminated sites. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22:1394–1403.

Boutin, S., C.J. Krebs, R. Boonstra, and A.R.E. Sinclair. 2003. Lynx-hare cycles and forest management: lessons from northern Canada. pp. 487-509. in C. J. Zabel and R. G. Anthony, editors. Mammal Community Dynamics in Coniferous forests: Management and Conservation Issues in Western North America, Cambridge University Press.

Karels, T.J. and R. Boonstra. 2003. Reducing solar heat gain during winter: the role of white bark in northern deciduous trees. Arctic 56:168–174.


Boonstra, R., N. Takagi, N. Bissoon, S. Vij and J.W. Gurd 2002. Changes in expression of subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the hippocampus caused by live-trapping of snowshoe hares. Neuroscience Letters 324:173-176.
Kee, N., S. Sivalingam, R. Boonstra, and J.M. Wojtowicz. 2002. The utility of Ki-67 and BrdU as proliferative markers of adult neurogenesis. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 115: 97-105.

Boutin, S., C.J. Krebs, R. Boonstra, A.R.E. Sinclair, and K.E. Hodges. 2002. Understanding the snowshoe hare cycle through large-scale field experiments. pp 69-91. in A.A. Berryman, editor. Population Cycles: The Case for Trophic Interactions Oxford University Press.


Boonstra, R., L. Galea, S.G. Matthews, and J.M Wojtowicz. 2001. Adult neurogenesis in natural populations. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.79: 297-302.  
Boonstra, R., A.H. Hubbs, E.A. Lacey, and C.J. McColl. 2001. Seasonal changes in glucocorticoids and testosterone in free-living arctic ground squirrels from the boreal forest of the Yukon. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:49-58.

Hik, D., C.J. McColl, and R. Boonstra. 2001. Why are Arctic ground squirrels more stressed in the boreal forest than in alpine meadows? Ecoscience 8:275-288.

Krebs, C.J., R. Boonstra, S. Boutin, and A.R.E. Sinclair. 2001. What drives the ten-year cycle of snowshoe hares? Bioscience 51:25-35.


Boonstra, R. and C.J. McColl. 2000. The contrasting stress response of male Arctic Ground Squirrels and Red Squirrels. Journal of Experimental Zoology 286: 390-404.

Byrom, A.E., T.J. Karels, C.J. Krebs, and R. Boonstra. 2000. Experimental manipulation of predation and food for arctic ground squirrels in the boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1309-1319.

Hansen, T. and R. Boonstra. 2000. The best in all possible worlds? a quantitative genetic study of geographic variation in Microtus pennsylvanicus. Oikos 89:81-94

Hubbs, A.H., T.J. Karels, and R. Boonstra. 2000. Indices of population size in burrowing mammals. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:296-301.

Karels, T.J., A. Byrom, R. Boonstra, and C.J. Krebs. 2000. The interactive effects of food and predators on reproduction and overwinter survival of Arctic ground squirrels. Journal of Animal Ecology 69:235-247.

Sinclair, A.R.E., C.J. Krebs, J.M. Fryxell, R. Turkington, S. Boutin, R. Boonstra, P. Seccombe-Hett, P. Lundberg, and L. Oksanen. 2000. Testing hypotheses of trophic level interactions: a boreal forest ecosystem. Oikos 89:313-328.


Ben-David, M., C. McColl, R. Boonstra, and T.J. Karels. 1999. Nutritional stress in Arctic ground squirrels: can 15N be used as an indicator? Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1373-1378.

Karels, T.J. and R. Boonstra. 1999. The impact of predation on burrow use by Arctic ground squirrels in the boreal forest. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 266:2117-2123.

Krebs, C.J., A.R.E. Sinclair, R. Boonstra, S. Boutin, K. Martin, and J.N.M. Smith. 1999. Community dynamics of vertebrate herbivores - how can we untangle the web? in Herbivores: Between Plants and Predators. Editors: H. Olff, V. K. Brown, and R. H. Drent. pp.447-473, Chapter 15, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.

McColl, C.J. and R. Boonstra. 1999. Physiological effects of three inhalant anesthetics on Arctic ground squirrels. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:946-951.

Stenseth, N.C., K.-S. Chan, H. Tong, R. Boonstra, S. Boutin, C.J. Krebs, E. Post, M. O’Donoghue, N.G. Yoccoz, M.C. Forchhammer, and J.W. Hurrell. 1999. Common dynamic structure of Canadian lynx within three geo-climatic zones. Science 285:1071-1073.

Tinnikov, A.A. and R. Boonstra. 1999. Colorimetric micro-determination of free fatty acids in plasma using microplate readers. Clinica Chimica Acta 281:159-162.



Boonstra, R., D. Hik, G. R. Singleton, and A. Tinnikov. 1998. The impact of predator-induced stress on the snowshoe hare cycle. Ecological Monographs 68: 371-394.

Boonstra, R., C.J. Krebs, and N.C. Stenseth. 1998. Population cycles in mammals: the problem of explaining the low phase. Ecology 79:1479-1488.

Boonstra, R. and A.A. Tinnikov. 1998. Increased corticosteroid binding capacity of plasma albumin but not of CBG caused by ACTH induced changes in free fatty acid concentrations in snowshoe hares and rabbits. Journal of Endocrinology 156:205-212.

Hubbs, A. and R. Boonstra. 1998. Effects of food and predators on home range sizes of Arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii). Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:592-596.

Stenseth, N.C., W. Falck, K.-S. Chan, O.N. Bjornstad, M. O’Donoghue, H. Tong, R. Boonstra, S. Boutin, C. J. Krebs, and N. G. Yoccoz. 1998 From patterns to processes: phase and density-dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95:15430-15435.

Turkington, R., E. John, C.J. Krebs, M. Dale, V. Nams, R. Boonstra, S. Boutin, K. Martin, A.R.E. Sinclair, and J.N.M. Smith. 1998. The effects of NPK fertilization for nine years on the vegetation of the boreal forest in northwestern Canada. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:333-346.


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