Project on the Bibliography of

Contemporary Research on

The Semantics and Pragmatics of

Tense, Verbal Aspect, Aktionsart,

and Related Areas

 

 

 

 

 

Indices

 

 

 

 

 

Robert I. Binnick

Division of Humanities

University of Toronto at Scarborough

Toronto. Canada

 

 

June, 2001


 

 

 

 

©1999-2001 by Robert I. Binnick

 

 

 

 

Robert I. Binnick

Division of Humanities

University of Toronto at Scarborough

1265 Military Trail

Scarborough, Ontario, Canada M1C 1A4

 

<binnick@utsc.utoronto.ca>

 

fax: 1-416-287-7116

phone: 1-416-287-7120


Contents

 

Co-authors............................................................................... 1

Languages of Publication.............................................. 9

Languages of Topic........................................................ 24

Topical Index...................................................................... 57

Comparative and Contrastive Studies............ 138


 


Co-Authors

 


Ahmed, Mohammed K.            3394

Akmajian, Adrian                       5669

Aksu, Ayhan A.                            5528

Alepuz, M.                                        3858

Ali, Elizabeth                                  4099

Alonso, María Angeles            909

Altmann, G.                                    442

Andersen, R. W.                           5451

Andersson, Lars-Gunnar       113

Angelieva, Fani                            4659

Arahna, Solange                          3658

Arnauld, Antoine                        3372, 3373

Asher, N.                                           3412, 3413, 3414

Asher, Nicholas                            3421, 3422

Aurnague, Michel                       225

Avrutin, Sergey                            799

Babyonyshev, Maria                 799

Badecker, Wm.                               4592

Bahan, Benjamin J.                    3, 852, 1026, 2076, 2077, 2078, 2079, 2080, 2081, 2082, 2083, 2084, 5042, 6266

Bailey, Guy                                       3894, 3895, 3896, 3897

Banks, Amelie                                4892

Bautista, Maria L. S.                  4861

Begin, Claude                                 2553, 2556

Bennett, P.                                        1899

Bense, G.                                           2202

Benthem, Johan van                 1777, 4242

Bertinetto, Pier-Marco              511, 1409, 1470, 3533, 5637

Bestgen, Y.                                       1150

Bestougeff, Helene                      3582

Bethke, Inge                                    4954

Bianchi, Valentina                      496

Bocaz, Aura                                     5527

Bomberg, M.                                    2058

Bonevac, Daniel                            224

Bonnotte, Isabelle                       1769, 3763

Botne, Robert D.                           3034

Bouillon, P.                                      4817

Bourdin, Beatrice                         777

Bras, Myriam                                  225

Brée, David                                      1578, 4789

Bresnan, Joan                                4397

Briceno, Enrique Martin         4671

Bruneau, Charles                        805

Bubenik, Vit                                    2519

Buczowska, Ewa                            6405

Busa, Federica                               4816

Cameracanna, Emanuela       4710

Carlson, Gregory N.                  3275

Carriedo, Nuria                            909

Carruthers, J.                                 251

Cartes, Anamary                         832

Cascio, Vincenzo Lo                   57, 58

Caskey, Alexander F.                867

Champaud, Christian               612

Chang, Anna H.                           6593

Chang, Kun                                     5418

Chang, Shen-Ming                     2657

Chang, W. Vincent                     2653

Chauhan, Mohabbat S. M.    2622

Chen, D.                                            1820

Chierchia, Gennaro                   3275

Cho, C.                                                3409

Christchev, Theodor                 6394

Christian, R. F.                              683

Chuchu, H. F. B. H. A.              5782

Coene, M.                                          1223

Cohen, R.                                          5600

Coleman, Ned R.                          2894

Companys, Emanuel                 72

Cooper, Robin                                5601

Corazza, Serena                           4710

Costermans, Jean                        504, 505

Coulon, Daniel                              1886

Crain, Stephen                              2155

Cronin, Mary C.                           1518

Cuenca, Maria Josep                 4628

Curat, V. N.                                     2554

D’Angelo, Mario                           794, 795

Dahl, Östen                                     113, 449, 862

Daniel, Mary L.                             1499

Danon-Boileau, Laurent          366

Davis, Philip W.                            2659

Delfitto, Denis                                492, 493

Delgado-Lavin, Eva                    6071

Delmas, Claude                             315

Delphonse, Joseph                     5367

Demers, Richard                          5669

Demirdache, Hamida                1293

Depraetere, Ilse                            1376

Desbordes, Francoise               319

Deschamps, A.                               710

Descles, Jean-Pierre                   1040, 2239, 2240

Desmet, Piet                                    3974

Devonish, H.                                   4718

Dicamilla, Frederick J.             3394

Dichy, Joseph                                 5042

Dijk, Kees Van                               774

Dillard, J. L.                                     3646

Dixon, R. M.                                    79

Dorow, R.                                          752

Draoulec, Anne Le                      126

Dromi, Esther                                 454

Drury, John E.                               4481

Dry, Helen                                        195

Dubos, Ulrika                                 315

Dumas, Stephanie                       4204

Dupuis, Fernande                       1570

Ebert, K.                                             497

Eckardt, Regine                             3643

Egbokhar, Francis O.                5236

Egorova, A.                                      6168

Etxebarria, Myriam Uribe      1405

Faraclas, Nicholas                      1326

Farley, R.                                           821

Fayol, Michel                                  646, 779

Ferguson, George                        109

Fernández, Angel                       909

Feuillet, L.                                         398

Fiedler, Wilfried                           1563

Flem, Claude Le                            4204

Flintham, Ronald                        315

Fodor, Janet Dean                      2155

Fournier, Robert                          6484

Francez, Nissim                            4345, 4346, 4347

François, Jacques                        1087

Friemel, E.                                        2058

Frosch, Helmut                              310

Gardent, Claire                             548, 553

Gardner, Holly                              5635

Gebert, L.                                          176

Geniusiene, Emma S.                4322

Giorgi, A.                                          1889

Glover, Claire                                 2561

Gombert, Jean-Emile                 1769

Gool, A. G. van                             3637

Goring, Tim                                     1697

Gough, Bonnie                              1824, 1940

Goyal, N.                                           5459

Green, Harold G.                         1499

Greene, Alyssa                              5367

Groot, C. de                                     497

Guentchéva, Zlatka                    1431, 1432

Guenther, Franz                          187, 189, 1961

Guimier, C.                                      2015

Hacker, P. M. S.                            281

Hafitz, J.                                            570

Halvorsen, Per-Kristian           1777

Harner, Lorraine                         569

Harris, Paul L.                                3772

Hasan, Ruqiaya                            2316

Hasle, Per F. V.                             4470

Hayes, P.                                            107

Hedin, Eva                                        1247

Heine, Bernd                                   1055

Heny, Frank                                    5879

Hercus, L.                                          6527

Herlick, Tanya                               433

Hewitt, Lynne E.                           6627

Hickmann, Maya                          1769

Ho, Mian-Lian                                4712

Hoekstra, Jarich                           1605

Hoekstra, Teun                             2251

Hoepelman, Jaap                         190, 2245

Hollebrandse, Bart                     3865

Holmback, H.                                  1109

Hoppe-Beugel, G.                         2412

Hopper, Paul J.                              4724

Hosenfeld, Carol                          5367

Houdaifa, Et Tayeb                    4407

Hovav, Malka Rappaport       3553, 3554, 3555, 3556

Hoyt, Katherine                            433

Huang, Lillian M.                         6593

Iatridou, S.                                       127

Idiazabal-Gorrochategui, I.   646

Iida, Masayo                                   6059

Iljic, Robert                                      229

Inenlikej, Petr I.                            4326, 4329

Izvorski, R.                                       127

Jackendoff, R.                                4684

Jakobson, R.                                    6072

Janssen, T.M.V.                            6125

Jaxontov, Sergey                          4324

Jayez, Jacques                               2113, 4117

Jechle, Thomas                             5243

Jelinek, Eloise                                5669

Johnson, Marion                         1413

Julian, James                                  5367

Kaczmarek, Aleksandra          6404

Kahane, Renée                              2935, 2937

Kaifer, Anton                                 646

Karlsson, Fred                               1249

Kasper, W.                                        1597

Keenan, Edward L.                     147

Kegl, Judy                                         3

Kekenbosch, C.                             2058

Kennedy, Chris                             2420

Kern, Sophie                                   89

Khindriks, I. Kh.                          325

Khokhlova, N.                               5393

Kiefer, Ferenc                                2214

Kimenyi, A.                                      2098

Kitagawa, Chiasato                    5669

Kitto, Catherine                            2072

Kleiber, Georges                           468, 469, 470, 471

Klein, W.                                            6310

Klein, Harriet E. Manelis        6266

Knight, Brian                                 3722

Koda, Keiko                                     1218

Kornfilt, Jaklin                              2184

Kortmann, Bernd                        6154

Kozlowska, M.                                4117

Kusumoto, Kiyomi                       218

Kuznetsov, D. O.                          992

Kuznetsova, N. G.                       614

Labutis, V. V.                                 3751

Lamm, E.                                            6168

Langholm, Tore                            1777

Langner, Peter                               3810

Lanza, Carmen Sánchez         1788

Lapalme, G.                                     1974

Latrouite, Anja                              4294, 4295

Leino, Pentti                                    2311

Leinonen, Marja                           2448

Leonard, Anne-Marie               1954

Leonard, Laurence B.                4843

Levin, Beth                                       2420, 2646, 2647, 3022

Li, Dingxuan                                   3764

Lifter, K.                                             570

Lilly, Jeffrey P.                               4481

Lim, Jung-Lae                                 852

Lin, I-peng                                        3481

Link, Godehard                             3275

Liro, Joseph                                     433

Lopes, Ana                                       4480

Loux-Schuringa, J. A. Le         6204

Luis, Angel                                       273

Luo, Shenyi                                     4930

Luscher, J.-M.                                 4117

Lutzeier, Peter                               3152

Lyytinen, Paula                             6406

Macris, James                                 2915

Maire-Reppert, Daniele           1432

Maisier, Veronique                    2112

Malachadjan, A.                           1269

Mandler, J.                                       374

Manfredi, Victor                          1337

Manor, Ruth                                   2988

Maria-Teresa                                  1893

Markowicz, Harry                       6507

Marlett, Stephen A.                   521

Martens, Martha                          2190

Martins, Soraia                             3658

Massone, Maria Ignacia          1203

Mathet, Y.                                         948

Mazodier, C.                                   710

McNally, Louise                            3023

Mel’  nikova, E. A.                       6289

Mendelsohn, Aurora                 5367

Meulen, Alice ter                         3275, 5378

Meyer, Charles F.                        4

Miller, Gregory                             5367

Miller, R.                                            177

Miralles, M. Porcar                     560

Mishra, Mithilesh Kumar       8

Mkhatshwa, S. N. L.                  2469

Moens, Marc                                   874, 2561

Moeschler, Jacques                    3700

Molendijk, Arie                             1321, 5800, 5801, 6248

Mommer, K.                                     3718

Monville-Burston, M.                6380

Moravcsik, Julius                         1966

Morel, Mary-Annick                  366

Moreno, Patricio                          832

Morgan, William                          6558

Morley, David                                2050

Morris, A. M.                                  3747

Moura, Duse Abreu                    5854

Muansuwan, Nuttanart          3132

Mukala, Kabange                        5089

Mulder, Walter De                      6263, 6298

Müller, Barbel                                1563

Naremore, R.                                  4419

Nash, Léa                                          2792

Nedjalkov, Igor’   V.                  4323, 4329

Nedjalkov, Vladimir P.            2045, 3613, 4306, 4307

Nef, Frédéric                                   6288

Neidle, Carol                                  3, 3533, 6635

Neves, M. H. de Moura            4169

Newton, B.                                        6186

Noyau, Colette                               1087

O’  Neail, Mary Elizabeth       1413

Oberlander, Jon                           3414, 3420

Ocampo, Alicia M.                       3092

Oehrle, Richard                            5669

Oh, Hyun-guam                            1432

Oliveira, Nubiacira F. de        1198

Olsen, Mari Broman                  1511

Övergaard, G.                                6016

Padilla-Rivera, José                    5776

Padros, Elisenda                          5243

Pagliuca, William                         856, 857, 863

Paillard, Denis                               1882, 2088

Pakalniskiene, D.                         2995

Pan, C.                                                4410

Panevová, J.                                    2307, 2309

Partee, Barbara                             432

Patry, Richard                               5962

Pavolva, A.                                       1269

Pelletier, Francis Jeffry           3275, 5339, 5340

Perkins, Revere D.                      857, 863

Përnaska, Remzi                           1561

Perry, John                                      358, 359, 360

Peters, Stanley                              1529

Petridis, Miltiadis                        3722

Pey, Chi-Chang                             993

Pianesi, Fabio                                1889, 2066, 2076, 2077, 2078, 2079, 2080, 2081, 2082, 2083, 2084

Pike, Kenneth L.                           1551

Piñon, C. J.                                      4291

Plungyan, V. A.                            992

Plunkett, Kim                                 4845

Polinsky, Maria                             1110

Pollitt, Caroline                            5701

Poplack, Shana                             5828, 5829

Porth-Keromnes, Yvon             1887

Post, Marike                                    291

Prabhu, N. S.                                  6361

Pulman, S.                                        1189

Raccah, Pierre-Yves                    4496

Racz, Endre                                     5649

Rader, Wendelin                          1712

Rakhtilin, Vladimir G.              4326, 4329

Ramchand, Gillian                      850

Randall, Janet                                910

Rao, Anand                                     2050

Rapoport, Tova R.                       1709, 1710

Rappaport-Hovav, Malka (see under Hovav)

Recanati, François                      4895

Reed, S.                                              5150

Reh, Mechthild                              2458

Rey, Joëlle                                         4283

Reyle, Uwe                                        2965

Richards, Barry                             2478

Rijke, Maarten de                        553, 548

Ritter, Elizabeth                           3500

Ritz, M.-E.                                         1676

Roberts, Craige                             1041

Roberts, John R.                           131

Rocca, Nora                                     832

Rochet, Bernard                           136

Rodrigues, Sonia Veasey        4169

Roeper, Thomas                           6137

Rohrer, Christian                        188, 189, 190, 1964, 1965, 2245, 2568, 2575, 2576, 2960, 2961, 2962, 2963, 2964, 3638

Romanova, T. A.                          3550

Rombi, Marie-Françoise          103

Rooth, Mats                                     43

Rosen, Haiim                                  5058

Rosen, Nicole                                  2072

Rosen, Sara Thomas                 4995, 4996

Rotge, Wilfrid                                 315

Rouault, Jacques                          1955

Roussarie, Laurent                     947

Russell, William                            5367

Ryabchikov, A. A.                       992

Ryck, L. Tasmowski-De            1318

Smelev, Aleksej D.                      826

Saari, Mirja                                     2310

Sabsay, Sharon                            4592

Sadler, Louisa                                4398

Sandström, Görel                        873

Sankoff, D.                                       1658

Santisteban, Ana                         433

Saporta, Sol                                     2937

Saussure, L. de                              4117

Savasir, Iskender                         2033

Schlyter, Suzanne                       2489

Schousboe, Steen                        1114

Schreuder, R.                                 6138

Schubert, Lenhart K.                2687

Schuh, Russell G.                         4357

Schulz, Petra                                  4629, 4630

Schwartz, Benjamin                   3031

Sergot, Marek                                3194

Sgall, Petr                                         2307, 2308, 2309, 4549, 4550

Shimamungu, Eugene              2718

Shirai, Yasuhiro                           129, 3574

Shmelev, Alexei D.                      827

Simonsen, Hanne Gram          4844, 4845

Sinclair, H.                                       778, 1783

Slobin, Dan I.                                 93

Smallwood, Carolyn                  2072

Smit, R. A.                                        733, 734

Smith, C. S.                                      642, 1478, 4868

Smits, Caroline                             6139

Sobin, Nicholas J.                       3646

Soper, John                                     4592

Sperber, Dan                                  6470

Squartini, Mario                          494, 495, 511, 2858

Staudinger, Bernhard              5565

Stechow, Arnim von                  384

Steedman, Mark J.                      4114, 4115, 4116

Steele, Susan M.                           90

Steiner, Roger J.                           725

Stepanov, Ju. S.                            825

Steube, A.                                         2322

Sthioul, Bertrand                         3699, 4117, 5218, 5219

Stirling, Colin                                851

Stokhof, M.                                      2207

Stokoe, William C.                       2766

Stork, P.                                             5467, 5468, 5469

Sugioka, Y.                                       1758

Sumbatova, N. R.                         5457

Suñer, Margarita                         3078

Supalla, Ted                                    4011

Swiggers, Pierre                           3734, 3974

Szymanek, Bogdan                     400

Tagliamonte, Sali                        4741, 4742

Talmoudi, Fathi                            1248

Tamanji, Pius N.                          1024

Tanaka, Kazuhiko                      1377

Tasmowski, L.                                1223

Tedeschi, Philip                            4965

Terrell, Tracy David                  5493

Tersis, Nicole                                 3994, 3995

Thelin, Ingrid                                2489

Thomas, Francois                       1703

Thompson, Ellen                         4412, 4413, 4414

Thompson, R. M.                         3572

Thompson, Sandra A.              2632, 3570, 3571, 3572

Thummel, Wolf                             1057

Thurgood, Graham                    5951

Timberlake, Alan                        1026

Tito, Nelson                                    4517

Tommola, Hannu                        4021

Torrego, Esther                            4643

Traugott, Elizabeth Closs      2628, 3151

Travis, Lisa                                      283

Trnka, Karla                                   3296

Turpin, Danielle                          4739, 4740

Tyler, Andrea                                1726

Uher, Frantisek                            6076

Ulvestad, B.                                     3878

Upton, John                                    1551

Uribe-Etxebarria, M.                  1402

Urquhart, Alasdair                    4937

Vakhtin, Nikolai B.                     2133

Valin, Robert D. Van                1850

Van-Der-Voort, Hein                 291

Van-Hout, Roeland                     5655

Varzi, Achille                                 4674

Vaskó, Ildikó                                   1902

Vasseur, Marie-Therese          4407

Vater, Heinz                                    1630, 3107

Vaughan, Daniel                         1588

Veimberg, S.                                   5138

Veloudis, Ioannis                        4367, 4368

Vendeweghe, Willy                    935, 5630

Verhagen, A.                                  1256

Verkuyl, H. J.                                 1310, 4515

Vermette, Nancy                          2592

Veronique, Daniel                      4407, 6017

Verschueren, Jef                          4421

Verstiggel, Jean-Claude          2058

Vet, Co                                                1087, 3379

Vetters, Carl                                   5846, 5932

Vetulani, Grazyna                      5810

Vieu, Laure                                      225

Vikner, Carl                                    3173

Vikner, S.                                          2201

Visser, A.                                          4242

Vogel, Roos                                      929

Vogeleer, S.                                     1414

Volterra, Virginia                       4710

Vonk, W.                                           503

Vuillaume, Marcel                       6262

Waegner, Cathy C.                     1039

Waletzky, J.                                     3353

Wali, Kashi                                      4652

Wall, Robert E.                              1529

Warvik, Brita                                  1688

Wasow, Thomas                           90, 5669

Waterhouse, John                       6031

Waugh, Linda R.                          4174, 4175

Weinberg, Amy                             4481, 4482

Weist, Richard                               5563

Wekker, H.                                       2295

Welsch, Robert                              1588

Werkhoven, J. P. Van               734

Wexler, Kenneth                          5348

White, Michael                              6635

Whitehead, M. R.                         1677

Whittaker, S.                                  3951

Wilmet, Marc                                  1392

Wilson, D.                                         4809

Winford, James                             6563

Woisetschlaeger, Erich            2124, 2126

Wolfram, Walt                               339

Wouden, Ton van det              5168

Wu, Chien-ping                            3481

Wu, Joy J.                                          6593

Wunderlich, Dieter                     391, 392, 3229

Wurff, Wim Van der                  2829

Wysocka, Hanna                          6406

Wysocka, Jolanta                         6404

Yamakido, H.                                  3410

Yeh, Marie M.                                6593

Yip, M.                                                3568

Yule, George                                   790

Yvon, H.                                             1281

Zaretskaya, Marina                    5630

Zlatareva, O.                                   1269

Zurif, E.                                              4684

Zwarts, F.                                          2061

Zwarts, Frans                                 5168

Zwarts, J.                                           6220


Languages of Publication

 

Afrikaans   1115, 1116, 3286, 6118, 6119, 6120, 6140

Armenian  15, 2748, 5405, 6015

Azerbaijani  69, 414, 2004, 2005

Belorussian  4619, 6055, 6056

Bulgarian  161, 681, 689, 830, 1033, 1380, 1382, 1466, 1531, 1916, 2001, 2750, 2754, 2923, 2926, 2927, 3297, 3336, 3363, 3583, 3599, 3601, 3606, 3721, 3795, 3796, 3797, 4048, 4055, 4056, 4057, 4058, 4064, 4245, 4388, 4478, 4610, 4614, 4615, 4655, 4656, 4659, 4743, 5650, 5652, 5720, 5723, 5843, 5905, 6167, 6192, 6196

Catalan  561

Chinese  1753, 2138, 2655, 3068, 3584, 4826, 4927, 6360, 6541, 6564, 6603

Croatian  2128, 4788, 6300, 6301

Czech  327, 373, 407, 1491, 1513, 1514, 1515, 1516, 2341, 2416, 2732, 2800, 3141, 3158, 3159, 3160, 3161, 3162, 3163, 3215, 3216, 3219, 3220, 3277, 4296, 4297, 4298, 4299, 4300, 4348, 4492, 4549, 4725, 4726

Danish  1283, 1731, 2347, 2847, 2852, 3172, 3403, 5611, 6279, 6440

Dutch  219, 322, 615, 656, 657, 659, 685, 768, 1220, 1315, 1320, 1541, 1542, 1685, 2278, 2807, 2808, 2809, 2810, 2811, 2812, 2815, 2816, 2817, 2826, 2828, 2899, 3030, 3157, 3222, 3256, 3515, 3676, 3677, 4142, 4147, 4515, 4680, 4690, 4764, 4783, 4784, 4855, 4856, 4986, 5346, 5347, 5524, 5730, 5800, 5809, 6007, 6129, 6152, 6207, 6208, 6209, 6226, 6230, 6234, 6451

English  2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119, 121, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152, 155, 156, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 165, 169, 170, 175, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 204, 205, 206, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 218, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 231, 232, 234, 235, 239, 240, 241, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270, 272, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 299, 300, 302, 307, 310, 312, 313, 314, 317, 318, 321, 323, 324, 326, 328, 329, 331, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 357, 358, 359,

English (continued)

      360, 361, 367, 370, 371, 372, 374, 381, 384, 385, 386, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 403, 405, 406, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 417, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 435, 436, 442, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 462, 474, 476, 477, 478, 481, 482, 483, 484, 486, 488, 491, 492, 494, 496, 497, 498, 501, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 510, 511, 513, 514, 515, 516, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 543, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 559, 566, 569, 570, 571, 577, 583, 585, 594, 595, 599, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 609, 610, 611, 612, 613, 616, 639, 641, 642, 643, 647, 648, 650, 651, 652, 653, 655, 658, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664, 665, 667, 668, 683, 684, 691, 692, 693, 694, 695, 696, 697, 698, 699, 700, 701, 702, 703, 709, 711, 716, 718, 719, 721, 722, 723, 725, 727, 728, 729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 734, 735, 736, 737, 738, 751, 753, 754, 756, 757, 758, 759, 760, 761, 762, 763, 764, 765, 766, 767, 769, 770, 771, 772, 774, 776, 778, 780, 783, 784, 785, 786, 787, 789, 790, 791, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 799, 804, 806, 807, 808, 809, 810, 811, 812, 814, 815, 816, 819, 821, 822, 823, 827, 834, 835, 836, 837, 839, 840, 841, 842, 843, 844, 845, 849, 850, 851, 856, 857, 858, 859, 860, 861, 862, 863, 865, 866, 867, 870, 871, 872, 873, 874, 875, 877, 878, 879, 880, 881, 882, 883, 885, 886, 887, 888, 889, 892, 893, 894, 895, 896, 897, 898, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903, 905, 909, 910, 912, 914, 915, 923, 927, 928, 929, 930, 935, 939, 942, 943, 944, 945, 946, 947, 950, 951, 952, 953, 954, 955, 956, 957, 958, 960, 961, 964, 968, 969, 970, 971, 972, 974, 975, 976, 977, 978, 979, 980, 984, 985, 986, 987, 988, 989, 996, 997, 1000, 1001, 1002, 1003, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1008, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1013, 1015, 1019, 1020, 1021, 1022, 1024, 1026, 1027, 1028, 1029, 1030, 1031, 1032, 1034, 1037, 1038, 1039, 1041, 1042, 1046, 1047, 1048, 1049, 1050, 1051, 1052, 1053, 1054, 1055, 1058, 1059, 1060, 1061, 1062, 1063, 1064, 1065, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1069, 1070, 1071, 1072, 1075, 1076, 1079, 1081, 1082, 1084, 1085, 1088, 1090, 1091, 1092, 1093, 1094, 1096, 1097, 1098, 1099, 1100, 1101, 1103, 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1110, 1114, 1117, 1118, 1119, 1120, 1121, 1122, 1123, 1124, 1125, 1126, 1127, 1128, 1129, 1130, 1132, 1133, 1134, 1137, 1146, 1148, 1149, 1150, 1152, 1153, 1154, 1155, 1156, 1157, 1158, 1159, 1160, 1161, 1162, 1163, 1164, 1165, 1166, 1167, 1168, 1169, 1170, 1171, 1172, 1173, 1174, 1175, 1177, 1178, 1179, 1180, 1181, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185, 1186, 1188, 1189, 1190, 1191, 1192, 1193, 1194, 1195, 1197, 1200, 1201, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1207, 1209, 1210, 1211, 1212, 1214, 1215, 1216, 1217, 1218, 1221, 1222, 1223, 1224, 1225, 1226, 1227, 1228, 1229, 1230, 1231, 1232, 1233, 1234, 1235, 1236, 1237,

English (continued)

      1238, 1239, 1240, 1241, 1242, 1243, 1244, 1245, 1246, 1247, 1248, 1249, 1250, 1252, 1253, 1256, 1257, 1258, 1259, 1266, 1267, 1268, 1269, 1271, 1277, 1278, 1282, 1284, 1285, 1286, 1287, 1288, 1289, 1291, 1292, 1293, 1294, 1296, 1297, 1298, 1299, 1301, 1305, 1306, 1307, 1308, 1309, 1310, 1311, 1313, 1317, 1321, 1323, 1324, 1325, 1326, 1327, 1328, 1329, 1330, 1331, 1332, 1333, 1334, 1335, 1336, 1337, 1338, 1339, 1340, 1342, 1343, 1344, 1345, 1346, 1347, 1348, 1349, 1350, 1351, 1352, 1353, 1354, 1355, 1356, 1357, 1358, 1359, 1360, 1361, 1362, 1363, 1364, 1365, 1366, 1367, 1368, 1369, 1370, 1371, 1373, 1374, 1375, 1376, 1377, 1383, 1384, 1385, 1386, 1387, 1388, 1389, 1394, 1395, 1402, 1403, 1404, 1405, 1406, 1407, 1409, 1410, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1415, 1416, 1417, 1418, 1419, 1420, 1421, 1422, 1425, 1426, 1427, 1431, 1437, 1439, 1440, 1442, 1444, 1445, 1446, 1447, 1453, 1456, 1460, 1461, 1463, 1464, 1465, 1468, 1469, 1470, 1471, 1472, 1473, 1474, 1475, 1477, 1478, 1480, 1481, 1482, 1483, 1484, 1487, 1489, 1490, 1492, 1495, 1497, 1505, 1506, 1507, 1508, 1510, 1511, 1512, 1518, 1519, 1520, 1521, 1522, 1523, 1524, 1525, 1526, 1527, 1528, 1529, 1534, 1535, 1537, 1538, 1539, 1540, 1545, 1546, 1547, 1548, 1549, 1550, 1551, 1560, 1564, 1565, 1566, 1567, 1568, 1569, 1570, 1578, 1579, 1581, 1582, 1583, 1584, 1585, 1587, 1588, 1590, 1591, 1593, 1594, 1595, 1597, 1599, 1601, 1602, 1603, 1604, 1605, 1608, 1609, 1610, 1613, 1614, 1615, 1616, 1617, 1618, 1621, 1622, 1624, 1626, 1631, 1632, 1633, 1634, 1637, 1638, 1639, 1640, 1641, 1643, 1644, 1645, 1646, 1647, 1649, 1650, 1651, 1652, 1653, 1654, 1655, 1656, 1657, 1659, 1660, 1661, 1662, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1666, 1667, 1668, 1669, 1671, 1672, 1673, 1676, 1677, 1678, 1679, 1680, 1681, 1683, 1684, 1687, 1688, 1689, 1690, 1691, 1693, 1694, 1695, 1696, 1697, 1698, 1701, 1704, 1708, 1709, 1710, 1713, 1714, 1715, 1716, 1717, 1718, 1719, 1720, 1723, 1724, 1725, 1726, 1727, 1728, 1729, 1730, 1732, 1733, 1741, 1745, 1747, 1749, 1752, 1754, 1755, 1756, 1757, 1758, 1760, 1761, 1762, 1767, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1773, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778, 1783, 1784, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1789, 1796, 1797, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1811, 1812, 1813, 1815, 1816, 1817, 1818, 1819, 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1858, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1872, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1889, 1892, 1894, 1895, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1945, 1951, 1955, 1958, 1959, 1960,

English (continued)

      1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1974, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2022, 2023, 2024, 2026, 2029, 2030, 2031, 2033, 2034, 2035, 2036, 2038, 2039, 2044, 2045, 2046, 2047, 2048, 2049, 2050, 2053, 2054, 2056, 2057, 2059, 2061, 2062, 2063, 2064, 2065, 2066, 2067, 2069, 2070, 2071, 2072, 2073, 2075, 2076, 2077, 2078, 2079, 2080, 2081, 2082, 2083, 2084, 2089, 2090, 2091, 2092, 2093, 2094, 2095, 2096, 2097, 2098, 2099, 2100, 2101, 2102, 2103, 2104, 2105, 2106, 2109, 2114, 2115, 2116, 2117, 2119, 2120, 2121, 2123, 2124, 2125, 2126, 2133, 2134, 2136, 2139, 2141, 2142, 2143, 2144, 2145, 2146, 2148, 2149, 2150, 2151, 2152, 2153, 2154, 2155, 2157, 2160, 2161, 2162, 2163, 2166, 2167, 2169, 2170, 2176, 2177, 2179, 2180, 2181, 2182, 2183, 2184, 2185, 2186, 2187, 2188, 2189, 2190, 2191, 2192, 2193, 2200, 2201, 2206, 2207, 2209, 2212, 2218, 2220, 2224, 2228, 2229, 2230, 2241, 2242, 2243, 2244, 2245, 2249, 2250, 2251, 2252, 2259, 2263, 2267, 2270, 2271, 2272, 2273, 2274, 2275, 2276, 2279, 2282, 2283, 2284, 2285, 2286, 2287, 2288, 2289, 2290, 2292, 2293, 2294, 2295, 2296, 2297, 2298, 2299, 2300, 2301, 2302, 2303, 2304, 2306, 2307, 2308, 2309, 2311, 2312, 2313, 2314, 2315, 2316, 2318, 2319, 2325, 2326, 2327, 2328, 2329, 2330, 2331, 2332, 2333, 2334, 2335, 2338, 2339, 2343, 2345, 2346, 2348, 2350, 2351, 2352, 2353, 2354, 2355, 2356, 2357, 2358, 2359, 2360, 2361, 2362, 2363, 2364, 2365, 2366, 2367, 2368, 2369, 2370, 2371, 2372, 2373, 2374, 2375, 2376, 2377, 2378, 2385, 2386, 2390, 2392, 2394, 2395, 2396, 2397, 2398, 2400, 2401, 2402, 2404, 2405, 2406, 2407, 2408, 2409, 2410, 2411, 2413, 2414, 2415, 2420, 2421, 2423, 2427, 2428, 2431, 2432, 2433, 2434, 2435, 2436, 2437, 2438, 2439, 2440, 2443, 2444, 2445, 2446, 2447, 2448, 2449, 2450, 2451, 2452, 2453, 2454, 2455, 2456, 2457, 2458, 2459, 2460, 2461, 2464, 2465, 2466, 2467, 2468, 2469, 2470, 2471, 2475, 2477, 2478, 2479, 2489, 2492, 2493, 2494, 2495, 2496, 2500, 2502, 2503, 2505, 2506, 2508, 2509, 2510, 2511, 2512, 2513, 2514, 2515, 2516, 2517, 2518, 2519, 2521, 2522, 2523, 2524, 2525, 2526, 2527, 2528, 2529, 2530, 2531, 2532, 2535, 2536, 2538, 2539, 2540, 2541, 2542, 2543, 2544, 2546, 2547, 2548, 2549, 2550, 2551, 2552, 2553, 2554, 2555, 2556, 2557, 2558, 2559, 2560, 2561, 2562, 2563, 2564, 2565, 2566, 2567, 2569, 2570, 2571, 2572, 2573, 2574, 2575, 2576, 2577, 2578, 2579, 2581, 2583, 2584, 2585, 2586, 2587, 2588, 2589, 2590, 2591, 2592, 2593, 2594, 2595, 2596, 2597, 2598, 2599, 2600, 2601, 2602, 2603, 2604, 2605, 2606, 2608, 2613, 2614, 2615, 2616, 2617, 2618, 2619, 2620, 2621, 2622, 2623, 2624, 2626, 2627, 2628, 2629, 2630, 2631, 2632, 2633, 2634, 2635, 2636, 2637, 2638, 2639,

English (continued)

      2640, 2642, 2643, 2644, 2645, 2646, 2647, 2648, 2649, 2650, 2651, 2652, 2653, 2654, 2656, 2657, 2658, 2659, 2660, 2661, 2662, 2663, 2664, 2665, 2666, 2667, 2668, 2669, 2670, 2671, 2672, 2673, 2675, 2676, 2677, 2682, 2683, 2684, 2686, 2687, 2688, 2689, 2691, 2692, 2694, 2695, 2698, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2714, 2716, 2717, 2719, 2720, 2721, 2722, 2724, 2725, 2728, 2730, 2734, 2736, 2738, 2739, 2740, 2741, 2757, 2758, 2760, 2761, 2762, 2763, 2764, 2766, 2767, 2768, 2769, 2770, 2771, 2772, 2773, 2774, 2775, 2777, 2778, 2779, 2780, 2782, 2785, 2787, 2788, 2794, 2795, 2796, 2797, 2798, 2799, 2801, 2802, 2805, 2813, 2818, 2819, 2820, 2821, 2822, 2823, 2824, 2825, 2827, 2829, 2830, 2831, 2832, 2834, 2835, 2839, 2840, 2844, 2846, 2848, 2849, 2850, 2853, 2854, 2855, 2856, 2857, 2858, 2859, 2860, 2861, 2862, 2864, 2868, 2872, 2873, 2874, 2875, 2876, 2877, 2878, 2880, 2881, 2882, 2883, 2884, 2885, 2886, 2887, 2888, 2889, 2893, 2894, 2897, 2898, 2900, 2901, 2902, 2903, 2904, 2905, 2908, 2909, 2910, 2915, 2916, 2917, 2920, 2921, 2924, 2925, 2928, 2929, 2930, 2931, 2932, 2935, 2936, 2937, 2944, 2945, 2947, 2948, 2949, 2950, 2951, 2952, 2953, 2954, 2956, 2957, 2958, 2959, 2960, 2961, 2962, 2963, 2964, 2965, 2968, 2969, 2970, 2972, 2973, 2982, 2986, 2988, 2990, 2991, 2992, 2993, 2994, 2996, 2999, 3001, 3002, 3005, 3006, 3007, 3008, 3009, 3010, 3011, 3012, 3014, 3015, 3016, 3017, 3018, 3019, 3020, 3021, 3022, 3023, 3024, 3025, 3026, 3027, 3031, 3034, 3035, 3036, 3037, 3040, 3048, 3049, 3050, 3051, 3052, 3053, 3055, 3056, 3057, 3058, 3059, 3060, 3061, 3062, 3063, 3064, 3065, 3066, 3067, 3069, 3070, 3071, 3073, 3074, 3075, 3076, 3077, 3078, 3079, 3080, 3081, 3082, 3083, 3084, 3085, 3086, 3088, 3089, 3091, 3092, 3094, 3097, 3098, 3100, 3101, 3103, 3104, 3107, 3108, 3109, 3112, 3113, 3121, 3124, 3129, 3131, 3132, 3133, 3134, 3137, 3143, 3144, 3146, 3147, 3148, 3150, 3151, 3156, 3166, 3167, 3168, 3169, 3170, 3171, 3174, 3190, 3191, 3192, 3193, 3194, 3195, 3197, 3199, 3200, 3208, 3212, 3213, 3224, 3225, 3226, 3227, 3228, 3229, 3230, 3231, 3232, 3233, 3235, 3236, 3237, 3238, 3239, 3240, 3244, 3246, 3249, 3250, 3255, 3257, 3258, 3259, 3261, 3263, 3264, 3265, 3268, 3269, 3270, 3271, 3272, 3273, 3274, 3275, 3278, 3279, 3280, 3282, 3285, 3287, 3288, 3291, 3292, 3293, 3294, 3295, 3296, 3298, 3299, 3300, 3301, 3302, 3303, 3304, 3305, 3308, 3309, 3310, 3314, 3318, 3322, 3324, 3328, 3329, 3330, 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334, 3335, 3342, 3343, 3345, 3347, 3351, 3352, 3353, 3355, 3356, 3358, 3359, 3360, 3361, 3362, 3366, 3369, 3370, 3371, 3373, 3374, 3375, 3376, 3377, 3379, 3380, 3381, 3382, 3383, 3384, 3385, 3386, 3387, 3388, 3389, 3391, 3392, 3394, 3404, 3405, 3406, 3407, 3408, 3409, 3410, 3411, 3412, 3413, 3414, 3415, 3416, 3417, 3418, 3419, 3420, 3421, 3422,

English (continued)

      3423, 3424, 3425, 3426, 3436, 3439, 3443, 3444, 3448, 3449, 3461, 3466, 3471, 3472, 3473, 3474, 3475, 3476, 3477, 3478, 3479, 3480, 3481, 3482, 3483, 3484, 3485, 3486, 3487, 3488, 3489, 3490, 3491, 3492, 3493, 3494, 3495, 3496, 3498, 3499, 3500, 3502, 3504, 3517, 3518, 3519, 3528, 3530, 3532, 3533, 3535, 3537, 3540, 3542, 3549, 3550, 3551, 3552, 3553, 3554, 3555, 3556, 3557, 3558, 3560, 3561, 3564, 3565, 3566, 3567, 3568, 3569, 3570, 3571, 3572, 3574, 3575, 3578, 3579, 3580, 3581, 3582, 3585, 3586, 3587, 3590, 3591, 3595, 3596, 3597, 3598, 3600, 3602, 3603, 3604, 3605, 3607, 3608, 3610, 3611, 3612, 3614, 3615, 3616, 3617, 3618, 3619, 3620, 3621, 3623, 3626, 3627, 3628, 3629, 3630, 3631, 3632, 3633, 3635, 3636, 3637, 3638, 3641, 3642, 3643, 3644, 3646, 3653, 3654, 3655, 3656, 3657, 3666, 3671, 3675, 3678, 3679, 3680, 3682, 3683, 3684, 3686, 3687, 3690, 3691, 3692, 3693, 3694, 3696, 3701, 3709, 3713, 3715, 3716, 3717, 3718, 3719, 3722, 3723, 3724, 3725, 3726, 3727, 3728, 3730, 3731, 3732, 3735, 3745, 3746, 3747, 3748, 3749, 3750, 3752, 3753, 3757, 3758, 3759, 3760, 3761, 3764, 3766, 3767, 3768, 3769, 3771, 3772, 3774, 3775, 3776, 3777, 3787, 3790, 3791, 3792, 3793, 3812, 3813, 3814, 3815, 3822, 3833, 3844, 3853, 3854, 3855, 3856, 3857, 3861, 3862, 3863, 3864, 3865, 3867, 3868, 3869, 3870, 3872, 3873, 3874, 3875, 3876, 3877, 3880, 3886, 3887, 3888, 3890, 3893, 3894, 3895, 3896, 3897, 3898, 3904, 3905, 3906, 3907, 3908, 3909, 3910, 3911, 3912, 3913, 3914, 3915, 3916, 3917, 3918, 3919, 3920, 3921, 3922, 3924, 3925, 3926, 3927, 3928, 3929, 3930, 3931, 3932, 3933, 3934, 3935, 3936, 3937, 3938, 3939, 3940, 3941, 3942, 3943, 3944, 3945, 3947, 3948, 3949, 3950, 3951, 3953, 3954, 3955, 3961, 3962, 3968, 3975, 3983, 3984, 3985, 3989, 3990, 3991, 3993, 3998, 3999, 4001, 4002, 4004, 4005, 4006, 4007, 4008, 4010, 4011, 4018, 4022, 4024, 4025, 4028, 4029, 4030, 4033, 4034, 4035, 4036, 4037, 4038, 4039, 4040, 4041, 4049, 4050, 4051, 4062, 4063, 4065, 4066, 4067, 4068, 4069, 4070, 4071, 4074, 4075, 4078, 4081, 4085, 4088, 4092, 4093, 4094, 4095, 4097, 4098, 4099, 4101, 4102, 4103, 4104, 4105, 4106, 4107, 4108, 4109, 4110, 4111, 4112, 4113, 4114, 4115, 4116, 4125, 4126, 4133, 4134, 4135, 4136, 4139, 4144, 4145, 4149, 4151, 4154, 4155, 4156, 4159, 4160, 4161, 4162, 4163, 4164, 4165, 4169, 4172, 4175, 4176, 4177, 4183, 4184, 4185, 4188, 4190, 4191, 4192, 4193, 4194, 4196, 4197, 4203, 4204, 4206, 4209, 4210, 4214, 4215, 4216, 4217, 4218, 4219, 4221, 4225, 4233, 4234, 4235, 4236, 4237, 4239, 4241, 4242, 4247, 4248, 4249, 4250, 4253, 4257, 4258, 4259, 4260, 4261, 4262, 4264, 4265, 4266, 4267, 4268, 4269, 4270, 4271, 4272, 4273, 4274, 4275, 4276, 4277, 4279, 4280, 4281, 4282, 4285, 4287, 4288, 4289, 4290, 4291, 4292, 4293, 4294, 4295, 4302, 4306,

English (continued)

      4307, 4312, 4313, 4322, 4323, 4324, 4330, 4331, 4335, 4337, 4339, 4341, 4342, 4343, 4344, 4345, 4346, 4347, 4349, 4350, 4351, 4353, 4354, 4355, 4356, 4357, 4358, 4359, 4360, 4361, 4362, 4363, 4364, 4365, 4366, 4367, 4368, 4369, 4372, 4373, 4374, 4375, 4376, 4377, 4379, 4380, 4386, 4387, 4392, 4393, 4394, 4395, 4396, 4397, 4398, 4400, 4401, 4402, 4403, 4407, 4409, 4410, 4411, 4412, 4413, 4414, 4416, 4417, 4418, 4419, 4420, 4421, 4422, 4423, 4424, 4425, 4426, 4427, 4428, 4429, 4430, 4431, 4434, 4435, 4436, 4437, 4438, 4439, 4440, 4441, 4442, 4444, 4445, 4446, 4447, 4448, 4449, 4450, 4451, 4452, 4453, 4454, 4455, 4456, 4457, 4458, 4459, 4460, 4461, 4462, 4463, 4464, 4465, 4468, 4470, 4471, 4472, 4474, 4480, 4481, 4482, 4483, 4484, 4485, 4486, 4487, 4490, 4491, 4493, 4495, 4496, 4498, 4499, 4500, 4501, 4502, 4505, 4506, 4507, 4510, 4511, 4512, 4513, 4514, 4516, 4518, 4519, 4521, 4525, 4533, 4538, 4540, 4541, 4542, 4543, 4544, 4545, 4546, 4547, 4548, 4550, 4552, 4555, 4556, 4559, 4560, 4561, 4562, 4563, 4564, 4565, 4568, 4570, 4571, 4572, 4573, 4575, 4576, 4577, 4578, 4579, 4580, 4581, 4582, 4583, 4584, 4585, 4586, 4587, 4588, 4589, 4590, 4591, 4592, 4593, 4594, 4595, 4596, 4597, 4598, 4600, 4601, 4605, 4606, 4607, 4608, 4611, 4616, 4617, 4618, 4620, 4621, 4622, 4628, 4629, 4630, 4633, 4634, 4636, 4640, 4641, 4642, 4643, 4644, 4648, 4650, 4651, 4652, 4653, 4657, 4667, 4668, 4669, 4671, 4672, 4674, 4675, 4676, 4677, 4684, 4685, 4688, 4689, 4691, 4692, 4693, 4695, 4697, 4698, 4699, 4700, 4701, 4702, 4704, 4705, 4706, 4707, 4710, 4712, 4713, 4714, 4715, 4716, 4717, 4718, 4723, 4724, 4736, 4738, 4739, 4740, 4741, 4742, 4744, 4745, 4746, 4747, 4749, 4750, 4751, 4755, 4756, 4758, 4765, 4766, 4767, 4768, 4769, 4771, 4776, 4777, 4779, 4780, 4781, 4782, 4785, 4786, 4787, 4789, 4790, 4791, 4792, 4793, 4794, 4795, 4796, 4798, 4799, 4800, 4801, 4806, 4807, 4808, 4809, 4810, 4811, 4813, 4814, 4815, 4816, 4817, 4818, 4819, 4820, 4824, 4827, 4830, 4831, 4833, 4834, 4835, 4836, 4838, 4841, 4842, 4843, 4844, 4845, 4846, 4849, 4850, 4851, 4852, 4853, 4854, 4857, 4858, 4861, 4862, 4863, 4864, 4865, 4866, 4867, 4868, 4871, 4872, 4873, 4876, 4877, 4878, 4879, 4880, 4881, 4882, 4883, 4891, 4892, 4893, 4896, 4899, 4900, 4901, 4902, 4904, 4906, 4907, 4908, 4909, 4910, 4911, 4912, 4913, 4914, 4915, 4917, 4918, 4919, 4921, 4923, 4925, 4928, 4937, 4939, 4941, 4944, 4945, 4947, 4948, 4949, 4950, 4951, 4952, 4953, 4954, 4955, 4956, 4957, 4958, 4959, 4960, 4961, 4962, 4963, 4964, 4965, 4967, 4972, 4973, 4974, 4975, 4976, 4977, 4978, 4979, 4980, 4981, 4982, 4983, 4984, 4985, 4987, 4988, 4989, 4990, 4991, 4992, 4993, 4994, 4995, 4996, 4997, 4998, 5002, 5005, 5007, 5008, 5009, 5010, 5011, 5012, 5013, 5023, 5024, 5027, 5032, 5033, 5035, 5036, 5037, 5038, 5041,

English (continued)

      5050, 5051, 5052, 5053, 5054, 5055, 5056, 5058, 5059, 5060, 5061, 5062, 5063, 5065, 5066, 5067, 5072, 5073, 5074, 5075, 5077, 5082, 5083, 5084, 5085, 5087, 5089, 5090, 5092, 5093, 5095, 5096, 5098, 5109, 5110, 5111, 5115, 5118, 5119, 5120, 5122, 5125, 5128, 5129, 5130, 5134, 5136, 5137, 5139, 5140, 5141, 5142, 5143, 5145, 5146, 5147, 5149, 5150, 5151, 5152, 5154, 5156, 5157, 5161, 5163, 5164, 5166, 5168, 5170, 5172, 5174, 5175, 5176, 5178, 5179, 5180, 5184, 5186, 5187, 5190, 5191, 5193, 5194, 5195, 5196, 5197, 5199, 5201, 5203, 5214, 5215, 5222, 5227, 5228, 5229, 5230, 5232, 5236, 5237, 5244, 5245, 5246, 5248, 5251, 5252, 5253, 5254, 5255, 5256, 5257, 5258, 5261, 5262, 5263, 5264, 5265, 5266, 5267, 5268, 5269, 5270, 5271, 5272, 5273, 5274, 5275, 5276, 5278, 5291, 5292, 5294, 5299, 5300, 5301, 5306, 5309, 5310, 5316, 5318, 5319, 5321, 5322, 5327, 5328, 5329, 5331, 5332, 5333, 5334, 5338, 5339, 5340, 5341, 5342, 5343, 5344, 5345, 5348, 5349, 5350, 5351, 5353, 5354, 5355, 5356, 5357, 5358, 5360, 5361, 5362, 5363, 5364, 5365, 5366, 5367, 5368, 5377, 5378, 5379, 5380, 5383, 5384, 5397, 5398, 5400, 5401, 5402, 5403, 5404, 5406, 5407, 5408, 5409, 5410, 5411, 5412, 5413, 5414, 5415, 5417, 5418, 5421, 5423, 5425, 5426, 5427, 5428, 5432, 5433, 5434, 5435, 5436, 5437, 5438, 5439, 5440, 5441, 5443, 5444, 5445, 5446, 5447, 5448, 5449, 5450, 5451, 5452, 5453, 5458, 5459, 5460, 5465, 5466, 5467, 5468, 5469, 5470, 5473, 5474, 5475, 5477, 5478, 5479, 5480, 5481, 5483, 5484, 5485, 5486, 5487, 5488, 5489, 5490, 5491, 5492, 5494, 5496, 5497, 5499, 5500, 5501, 5502, 5503, 5504, 5505, 5508, 5509, 5514, 5515, 5517, 5518, 5520, 5522, 5525, 5526, 5527, 5528, 5529, 5530, 5531, 5532, 5534, 5535, 5536, 5537, 5538, 5539, 5540, 5541, 5542, 5543, 5544, 5545, 5546, 5547, 5548, 5549, 5550, 5551, 5552, 5553, 5554, 5555, 5556, 5557, 5558, 5559, 5560, 5561, 5562, 5563, 5566, 5568, 5569, 5570, 5571, 5572, 5573, 5575, 5576, 5577, 5580, 5581, 5582, 5583, 5584, 5585, 5586, 5587, 5598, 5600, 5601, 5602, 5603, 5604, 5605, 5606, 5607, 5612, 5613, 5614, 5619, 5620, 5621, 5622, 5623, 5624, 5625, 5626, 5627, 5628, 5629, 5630, 5631, 5632, 5635, 5636, 5637, 5638, 5639, 5640, 5641, 5645, 5646, 5655, 5657, 5658, 5659, 5660, 5661, 5662, 5663, 5664, 5665, 5666, 5667, 5668, 5669, 5670, 5671, 5672, 5673, 5681, 5690, 5692, 5697, 5699, 5701, 5702, 5711, 5712, 5714, 5715, 5716, 5719, 5725, 5727, 5729, 5731, 5732, 5733, 5734, 5735, 5736, 5737, 5738, 5739, 5740, 5741, 5753, 5755, 5756, 5757, 5758, 5759, 5760, 5761, 5762, 5764, 5765, 5769, 5770, 5771, 5776, 5780, 5781, 5782, 5783, 5784, 5785, 5788, 5789, 5790, 5791, 5792, 5793, 5794, 5795, 5796, 5797, 5798, 5799, 5801, 5802, 5806, 5808, 5812, 5813, 5815, 5816, 5817,


English (continued)

      5818, 5819, 5820, 5824, 5826, 5827, 5828, 5829, 5830, 5831, 5832, 5833, 5836, 5837, 5838, 5847, 5848, 5849, 5850, 5851, 5852, 5853, 5855, 5856, 5857, 5858, 5859, 5860, 5866, 5867, 5868, 5869, 5870, 5871, 5872, 5873, 5874, 5875, 5876, 5877, 5878, 5879, 5880, 5881, 5882, 5883, 5884, 5885, 5886, 5887, 5888, 5892, 5893, 5894, 5899, 5900, 5901, 5902, 5906, 5909, 5910, 5911, 5912, 5913, 5920, 5921, 5922, 5924, 5925, 5926, 5935, 5936, 5937, 5938, 5939, 5940, 5941, 5942, 5943, 5944, 5945, 5946, 5947, 5948, 5949, 5951, 5952, 5953, 5954, 5957, 5958, 5959, 5960, 5961, 5964, 5965, 5966, 5967, 5968, 5969, 5974, 5975, 5976, 5977, 5978, 5979, 5985, 5988, 5991, 5992, 5993, 5996, 5998, 5999, 6002, 6005, 6006, 6012, 6014, 6016, 6025, 6026, 6027, 6028, 6029, 6030, 6031, 6033, 6034, 6035, 6036, 6037, 6040, 6041, 6043, 6044, 6045, 6052, 6054, 6058, 6059, 6060, 6061, 6063, 6064, 6066, 6069, 6071, 6074, 6077, 6078, 6080, 6082, 6086, 6091, 6093, 6097, 6101, 6104, 6105, 6106, 6107, 6108, 6109, 6110, 6111, 6112, 6113, 6114, 6115, 6116, 6117, 6121, 6122, 6123, 6125, 6126, 6127, 6128, 6130, 6131, 6132, 6133, 6134, 6135, 6136, 6137, 6138, 6139, 6141, 6142, 6143, 6144, 6145, 6146, 6147, 6148, 6150, 6151, 6153, 6154, 6155, 6160, 6162, 6163, 6165, 6166, 6168, 6169, 6170, 6172, 6183, 6187, 6188, 6189, 6190, 6191, 6202, 6203, 6204, 6205, 6206, 6210, 6211, 6212, 6213, 6214, 6215, 6216, 6217, 6218, 6219, 6220, 6221, 6222, 6229, 6231, 6232, 6236, 6237, 6238, 6239, 6241, 6243, 6244, 6246, 6248, 6249, 6250, 6257, 6266, 6268, 6270, 6271, 6272, 6273, 6277, 6278, 6280, 6281, 6282, 6283, 6285, 6286, 6287, 6290, 6291, 6292, 6293, 6303, 6304, 6305, 6306, 6307, 6308, 6310, 6311, 6312, 6313, 6314, 6315, 6318, 6325, 6329, 6330, 6332, 6335, 6336, 6337, 6338, 6339, 6340, 6341, 6342, 6343, 6344, 6345, 6346, 6347, 6348, 6349, 6350, 6351, 6352, 6353, 6358, 6359, 6361, 6362, 6365, 6366, 6367, 6368, 6369, 6370, 6371, 6372, 6373, 6374, 6375, 6376, 6377, 6378, 6379, 6380, 6381, 6382, 6383, 6384, 6387, 6388, 6389, 6390, 6393, 6394, 6398, 6402, 6403, 6404, 6405, 6406, 6407, 6408, 6409, 6411, 6412, 6413, 6414, 6415, 6418, 6419, 6420, 6421, 6422, 6423, 6424, 6425, 6426, 6427, 6428, 6429, 6430, 6431, 6432, 6433, 6434, 6435, 6436, 6438, 6439, 6442, 6443, 6444, 6445, 6446, 6447, 6448, 6452, 6453, 6454, 6455, 6456, 6457, 6458, 6459, 6460, 6461, 6471, 6472, 6474, 6475, 6476, 6477, 6478, 6481, 6486, 6488, 6489, 6490, 6491, 6494, 6495, 6496, 6497, 6499, 6500, 6501, 6502, 6503, 6504, 6505, 6506, 6507, 6508, 6509, 6510, 6511, 6512, 6513, 6514, 6515, 6516, 6517, 6521, 6524, 6525, 6526, 6527, 6528, 6531, 6532, 6534, 6535, 6536, 6537, 6538, 6539, 6540, 6543, 6544, 6545, 6546, 6549, 6551, 6552, 6553, 6555, 6556, 6557, 6558, 6559, 6560, 6561, 6562, 6563, 6569, 6570, 6571, 6572, 6573, 6575, 6576,

English (continued)

      6577, 6578, 6579, 6580, 6581, 6584, 6585, 6586, 6587, 6588, 6589, 6590, 6591, 6592, 6593, 6598, 6600, 6601, 6602, 6605, 6606, 6607, 6609, 6610, 6612, 6625, 6627, 6629, 6630, 6631, 6632, 6633, 6634, 6635, 6637, 6638, 6639, 6641

Esperanto  1381

Estonian  4013, 4014, 4015, 4016, 4017, 4020, 4679, 6085

Finnish  2310, 2706, 2707, 2744, 2971, 3397, 3514, 3516, 3592, 3720, 4381, 5283, 5284, 5385, 5768, 5986, 5987, 6009, 6450

French  12, 14, 50, 51, 52, 53, 72, 89, 103, 123, 166, 167, 171, 172, 173, 207, 208, 221, 222, 228, 229, 233, 271, 284, 311, 315, 319, 320, 332, 333, 334, 338, 365, 366, 369, 391, 401, 402, 434, 437, 438, 439, 440, 443, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 487, 502, 524, 539, 558, 565, 574, 586, 587, 596, 597, 646, 649, 654, 670, 671, 672, 673, 674, 675, 676, 677, 688, 690, 704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 710, 712, 713, 739, 740, 741, 742, 743, 744, 745, 746, 755, 777, 779, 800, 801, 802, 803, 805, 818, 833, 838, 848, 852, 853, 854, 876, 890, 906, 907, 908, 911, 913, 918, 920, 922, 924, 938, 940, 941, 948, 959, 962, 965, 966, 967, 981, 998, 999, 1004, 1012, 1040, 1044, 1045, 1056, 1073, 1074, 1077, 1078, 1080, 1083, 1086, 1087, 1088, 1095, 1102, 1111, 1113, 1131, 1135, 1136, 1139, 1142, 1143, 1151, 1176, 1196, 1199, 1213, 1260, 1261, 1262, 1263, 1264, 1265, 1272, 1273, 1274, 1275, 1276, 1280, 1281, 1295, 1302, 1304, 1318, 1319, 1322, 1372, 1378, 1379, 1390, 1391, 1392, 1396, 1397, 1401, 1408, 1413, 1428, 1429, 1430, 1432, 1434, 1435, 1462, 1485, 1494, 1496, 1509, 1517, 1536, 1543, 1552, 1553, 1554, 1555, 1556, 1558, 1559, 1561, 1562, 1571, 1572, 1573, 1574, 1575, 1576, 1577, 1606, 1658, 1670, 1674, 1675, 1686, 1692, 1703, 1746, 1763, 1764, 1765, 1768, 1781, 1782, 1790, 1791, 1792, 1794, 1828, 1847, 1848, 1854, 1855, 1856, 1857, 1870, 1871, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1890, 1900, 1943, 1944, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1969, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1983, 1984, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2015, 2027, 2028, 2032, 2055, 2058, 2088, 2112, 2113, 2127, 2137, 2158, 2159, 2164, 2165, 2173, 2174, 2210, 2213, 2214, 2217, 2231, 2232, 2233, 2234, 2235, 2236, 2237, 2238, 2239, 2240, 2246, 2247, 2248, 2253, 2254, 2255, 2256, 2257, 2258, 2260, 2261, 2262, 2291, 2305, 2317, 2323, 2417, 2418, 2424, 2425, 2426, 2429, 2430, 2462, 2463, 2473, 2474, 2497, 2568, 2582, 2610, 2612, 2641, 2678, 2685, 2690, 2699, 2700, 2709, 2710, 2711, 2712, 2713, 2718, 2726, 2727, 2729, 2735, 2749, 2792, 2838, 2841, 2842, 2863, 2890, 2891, 2892, 2906, 2907, 2911, 2914, 2934, 2938, 2942, 2946, 2955, 2978, 2979, 2980, 2983, 3003, 3013, 3033, 3093, 3114, 3120, 3173, 3206, 3207, 3209, 3210, 3211, 3247, 3248, 3254, 3284, 3317, 3319, 3321, 3346, 3348, 3349, 3350,

French (continued)

      3354, 3357, 3365, 3367, 3372, 3378, 3393, 3395, 3398, 3399, 3400, 3401, 3402, 3437, 3438, 3442, 3445, 3446, 3447, 3454, 3455, 3456, 3457, 3458, 3459, 3460, 3464, 3465, 3467, 3497, 3503, 3511, 3539, 3544, 3545, 3546, 3547, 3609, 3622, 3634, 3645, 3662, 3668, 3672, 3673, 3681, 3697, 3698, 3699, 3700, 3712, 3714, 3729, 3734, 3738, 3741, 3742, 3743, 3755, 3763, 3773, 3779, 3781, 3798, 3799, 3800, 3801, 3804, 3809, 3816, 3818, 3820, 3821, 3823, 3824, 3825, 3826, 3827, 3828, 3829, 3832, 3881, 3883, 3884, 3889, 3899, 3900, 3901, 3902, 3903, 3923, 3965, 3966, 3971, 3972, 3973, 3974, 3976, 3977, 3978, 3979, 3980, 3981, 3982, 3992, 3994, 3995, 3996, 4009, 4023, 4031, 4042, 4043, 4073, 4080, 4082, 4083, 4084, 4100, 4117, 4118, 4119, 4120, 4121, 4122, 4123, 4124, 4127, 4128, 4129, 4130, 4131, 4132, 4140, 4141, 4143, 4146, 4148, 4150, 4158, 4166, 4167, 4168, 4173, 4174, 4180, 4198, 4199, 4200, 4201, 4207, 4208, 4224, 4228, 4229, 4255, 4278, 4283, 4332, 4333, 4334, 4370, 4382, 4383, 4384, 4389, 4399, 4404, 4432, 4433, 4466, 4467, 4473, 4488, 4509, 4534, 4535, 4537, 4569, 4574, 4599, 4612, 4627, 4631, 4635, 4637, 4638, 4639, 4670, 4678, 4682, 4686, 4711, 4719, 4720, 4721, 4722, 4733, 4753, 4754, 4773, 4774, 4775, 4778, 4832, 4874, 4894, 4895, 4920, 4929, 4930, 4931, 4936, 4966, 4969, 4999, 5000, 5001, 5003, 5004, 5006, 5015, 5016, 5030, 5042, 5064, 5068, 5069, 5070, 5071, 5076, 5078, 5079, 5080, 5081, 5086, 5088, 5091, 5094, 5100, 5101, 5123, 5124, 5126, 5127, 5153, 5177, 5182, 5183, 5188, 5202, 5204, 5205, 5206, 5207, 5208, 5209, 5210, 5211, 5212, 5213, 5216, 5217, 5218, 5219, 5220, 5221, 5286, 5290, 5302, 5311, 5312, 5313, 5314, 5317, 5371, 5375, 5387, 5388, 5389, 5422, 5429, 5463, 5464, 5495, 5511, 5512, 5513, 5516, 5523, 5564, 5567, 5574, 5599, 5610, 5615, 5616, 5617, 5651, 5656, 5674, 5675, 5684, 5685, 5686, 5687, 5703, 5704, 5705, 5706, 5707, 5708, 5709, 5773, 5774, 5803, 5804, 5805, 5807, 5810, 5822, 5823, 5844, 5845, 5846, 5862, 5864, 5865, 5891, 5896, 5897, 5898, 5927, 5928, 5929, 5930, 5931, 5932, 5955, 5962, 5973, 5980, 5981, 5982, 5983, 5984, 5989, 5990, 6010, 6017, 6018, 6019, 6020, 6021, 6022, 6023, 6038, 6070, 6079, 6081, 6087, 6088, 6089, 6090, 6095, 6098, 6099, 6100, 6102, 6149, 6171, 6200, 6223, 6224, 6227, 6228, 6233, 6235, 6240, 6242, 6245, 6247, 6251, 6252, 6253, 6254, 6255, 6256, 6258, 6259, 6260, 6261, 6262, 6263, 6264, 6265, 6269, 6284, 6288, 6294, 6295, 6296, 6297, 6298, 6322, 6323, 6324, 6326, 6327, 6355, 6356, 6357, 6363, 6364, 6462, 6463, 6464, 6465, 6466, 6467, 6468, 6469, 6470, 6473, 6484, 6485, 6565, 6566, 6567, 6568, 6574, 6599, 6617, 6626

Frisian  6317

Galician  4170, 6184

Georgian  27, 1586, 3739

German  1, 6, 18, 71, 150, 153, 154, 157, 158, 174, 216, 253, 269, 274, 296, 298, 303, 304, 305, 306, 308, 309, 316, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 363, 364, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 382, 383, 392, 404, 415, 441, 463, 500, 517, 537, 538, 540, 541, 542, 544, 562, 563, 564, 567, 568, 573, 578, 579, 580, 581, 582, 584, 598, 600, 636, 645, 724, 726, 747, 748, 749, 750, 752, 773, 775, 781, 782, 788, 797, 798, 813, 817, 917, 921, 925, 931, 932, 933, 934, 936, 937, 949, 1016, 1017, 1018, 1057, 1112, 1140, 1145, 1147, 1208, 1219, 1251, 1254, 1255, 1270, 1279, 1290, 1300, 1341, 1393, 1436, 1441, 1448, 1449, 1450, 1451, 1454, 1455, 1457, 1458, 1459, 1479, 1500, 1501, 1502, 1503, 1504, 1533, 1563, 1596, 1598, 1600, 1607, 1611, 1612, 1619, 1620, 1623, 1625, 1627, 1628, 1629, 1630, 1635, 1636, 1642, 1682, 1699, 1700, 1702, 1705, 1706, 1707, 1711, 1712, 1721, 1734, 1735, 1736, 1737, 1738, 1739, 1740, 1742, 1743, 1744, 1748, 1750, 1751, 1766, 1774, 1780, 1793, 1795, 1805, 1806, 1860, 1884, 1891, 1896, 1908, 1934, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1949, 1956, 1957, 1988, 1995, 1997, 2002, 2009, 2040, 2041, 2042, 2043, 2052, 2107, 2108, 2110, 2118, 2194, 2195, 2196, 2197, 2202, 2203, 2208, 2211, 2215, 2216, 2219, 2280, 2281, 2320, 2321, 2322, 2336, 2337, 2344, 2379, 2380, 2381, 2382, 2383, 2384, 2387, 2388, 2389, 2391, 2399, 2412, 2441, 2442, 2476, 2480, 2481, 2484, 2485, 2486, 2487, 2488, 2498, 2499, 2501, 2504, 2507, 2520, 2533, 2534, 2537, 2580, 2607, 2609, 2611, 2625, 2674, 2679, 2680, 2681, 2708, 2742, 2743, 2759, 2776, 2781, 2783, 2784, 2786, 2803, 2804, 2806, 2814, 2843, 2845, 2865, 2866, 2867, 2869, 2870, 2871, 2879, 2918, 2919, 2985, 2989, 3000, 3038, 3047, 3054, 3090, 3095, 3096, 3099, 3102, 3105, 3106, 3115, 3116, 3117, 3118, 3119, 3123, 3126, 3127, 3138, 3139, 3140, 3142, 3149, 3152, 3153, 3175, 3176, 3177, 3179, 3180, 3181, 3182, 3183, 3184, 3185, 3188, 3189, 3201, 3202, 3203, 3204, 3205, 3223, 3234, 3241, 3242, 3243, 3251, 3260, 3262, 3266, 3267, 3281, 3311, 3312, 3313, 3315, 3316, 3323, 3327, 3337, 3344, 3364, 3390, 3430, 3431, 3432, 3433, 3434, 3435, 3440, 3468, 3469, 3470, 3501, 3505, 3506, 3507, 3508, 3509, 3510, 3512, 3513, 3520, 3521, 3522, 3523, 3524, 3525, 3526, 3527, 3534, 3541, 3543, 3548, 3563, 3573, 3576, 3588, 3589, 3593, 3594, 3613, 3639, 3640, 3667, 3669, 3670, 3674, 3685, 3688, 3689, 3695, 3710, 3711, 3737, 3740, 3782, 3784, 3794, 3802, 3803, 3805, 3806, 3807, 3808, 3810, 3811, 3834, 3841, 3860, 3871, 3878, 3879, 3882, 3885, 3891, 3892, 3946, 3952, 3957, 3958, 3959, 3964, 3986, 3987, 3988, 4003, 4012, 4019, 4021, 4026, 4027, 4045, 4047, 4053, 4086, 4186, 4195, 4220, 4222, 4226, 4227, 4230, 4231, 4232, 4238, 4240, 4246, 4252, 4254, 4303, 4304, 4336, 4338, 4340, 4352, 4378, 4390, 4391, 4406, 4408, 4443, 4477, 4508, 4554, 4558, 4567, 4602, 4609, 4647,

German (continued)

      4649, 4654, 4694, 4696, 4729, 4730, 4731, 4732, 4734, 4735, 4757, 4812, 4821, 4823, 4828, 4839, 4847, 4848, 4859, 4860, 4875, 4884, 4885, 4886, 4887, 4888, 4889, 4890, 4897, 4905, 4916, 4922, 4924, 4932, 4933, 4934, 4935, 4940, 4943, 4968, 5017, 5018, 5019, 5020, 5026, 5028, 5029, 5031, 5034, 5044, 5049, 5057, 5105, 5106, 5107, 5108, 5114, 5116, 5117, 5131, 5133, 5155, 5158, 5159, 5160, 5169, 5171, 5198, 5234, 5235, 5238, 5239, 5240, 5241, 5242, 5243, 5247, 5249, 5259, 5260, 5277, 5279, 5280, 5281, 5282, 5285, 5287, 5288, 5289, 5293, 5295, 5297, 5298, 5303, 5304, 5305, 5307, 5308, 5315, 5320, 5323, 5324, 5325, 5326, 5330, 5335, 5336, 5337, 5352, 5369, 5370, 5372, 5373, 5374, 5392, 5471, 5472, 5476, 5498, 5506, 5510, 5533, 5565, 5578, 5579, 5590, 5593, 5594, 5595, 5596, 5633, 5634, 5647, 5648, 5653, 5654, 5678, 5679, 5680, 5682, 5683, 5688, 5689, 5691, 5693, 5694, 5695, 5696, 5698, 5710, 5713, 5721, 5724, 5726, 5728, 5742, 5743, 5744, 5745, 5748, 5749, 5751, 5752, 5754, 5777, 5787, 5839, 5840, 5842, 5861, 5895, 5903, 5904, 5907, 5908, 5914, 5915, 5916, 5917, 5918, 5919, 5923, 5933, 5934, 5950, 5956, 5970, 5997, 6001, 6039, 6042, 6046, 6047, 6048, 6049, 6053, 6062, 6067, 6076, 6084, 6094, 6096, 6124, 6161, 6173, 6174, 6175, 6176, 6177, 6178, 6179, 6180, 6195, 6197, 6225, 6267, 6299, 6309, 6333, 6334, 6354, 6385, 6386, 6391, 6392, 6395, 6396, 6397, 6399, 6400, 6401, 6410, 6416, 6441, 6449, 6479, 6480, 6482, 6483, 6492, 6493, 6498, 6519, 6520, 6522, 6523, 6529, 6582, 6595, 6596, 6608, 6611, 6613, 6618, 6619, 6621, 6622, 6624, 6636, 6640, 6642

Greek  196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 1476, 5399, 6186

Hebrew, Modern  32, 666, 2122, 2472, 4213, 4673, 4825, 6073, 6542

Hungarian  3785, 3831, 3956, 4645, 4898, 5597, 5649, 5814, 6331

Italian  76, 106, 116, 122, 458, 459, 460, 461, 472, 473, 475, 479, 480, 485, 489, 490, 493, 495, 499, 572, 644, 669, 926, 1187, 1303, 1722, 1759, 1893, 2025, 2074, 2087, 2340, 2342, 2482, 2483, 2723, 2765, 3252, 3427, 3428, 3451, 3452, 3453, 3817, 3819, 3963, 4000, 4059, 4060, 4157, 4178, 4179, 4371, 4703, 4708, 4709, 4748, 4946, 5043, 5047, 5048, 5224, 5225, 5231, 5608, 5609, 5763, 5835, 6156, 6157, 6198, 6199, 6437

Japanese  220, 1589, 2324, 2349, 2393, 2422, 2737, 3072, 3325, 3326, 3866, 4054, 4256, 4263, 4475, 4494, 4520, 5430, 5442, 5834, 5889, 5890, 6004, 6533, 6547, 6548, 6550, 6554

Korean  963, 1025, 3125, 5431, 5766

Latin  180, 1498, 4405, 6166

Latvian  3647, 4523, 5642, 5643, 5644

Lithuanian  297, 2168, 2793, 2995, 4046, 5395, 5396, 6103

Macedonian  1922, 1924, 3145, 3245, 3780, 5588, 5589, 6075, 6201

Norwegian  1043, 1901, 3577, 5173, 6158, 6159, 6417

Persian, Modern   2966, 2967

Polish  176, 589, 591, 601, 717, 2156, 2981, 3111, 3178, 3186, 3187, 3320, 4079, 4087, 4202, 4632, 4683, 5135, 5700, 6487

Portuguese  120, 217, 368, 603, 715, 884, 919, 1138, 1198, 1499, 1807, 1852, 1853, 1950, 2703, 3658, 3663, 4187, 4479, 4536, 4623, 5181, 5185, 5189, 5359, 5854, 6032, 6616

Romanian  242, 243, 2175, 2223, 4052, 4090, 4091, 4137, 4301, 4489, 4840, 5200, 5386, 5717, 5718, 5863

Russian  11, 47, 70, 73, 84, 85, 87, 168, 236, 237, 238, 244, 245, 255, 325, 362, 418, 444, 512, 536, 588, 590, 592, 593, 602, 614, 618, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630, 631, 632, 633, 634, 635, 637, 638, 640, 678, 679, 680, 682, 714, 820, 824, 825, 826, 828, 829, 855, 864, 868, 869, 973, 982, 983, 990, 991, 992, 993, 994, 995, 1023, 1035, 1398, 1399, 1400, 1423, 1424, 1433, 1452, 1467, 1488, 1493, 1530, 1532, 1544, 1557, 1580, 1648, 1772, 1814, 1907, 1972, 1973, 1978, 1989, 1990, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2037, 2051, 2085, 2086, 2111, 2129, 2130, 2131, 2132, 2147, 2204, 2205, 2225, 2226, 2227, 2264, 2265, 2266, 2268, 2277, 2693, 2696, 2697, 2715, 2731, 2733, 2746, 2747, 2751, 2752, 2753, 2789, 2790, 2791, 2836, 2837, 2851, 2913, 2940, 2941, 2943, 2974, 2975, 2976, 2977, 2984, 2997, 2998, 3004, 3028, 3029, 3039, 3041, 3042, 3043, 3044, 3045, 3046, 3110, 3122, 3128, 3130, 3135, 3136, 3154, 3155, 3164, 3165, 3196, 3198, 3214, 3217, 3218, 3221, 3253, 3283, 3306, 3307, 3338, 3339, 3340, 3341, 3396, 3429, 3462, 3463, 3529, 3536, 3538, 3562, 3624, 3625, 3648, 3649, 3650, 3651, 3702, 3703, 3704, 3705, 3706, 3707, 3708, 3744, 3751, 3754, 3765, 3835, 3836, 3837, 3838, 3839, 3840, 3842, 3843, 3845, 3846, 3847, 3848, 3849, 3850, 3851, 3852, 3960, 3967, 3970, 3997, 4032, 4044, 4076, 4077, 4089, 4096, 4138, 4152, 4153, 4182, 4189, 4211, 4212, 4243, 4244, 4251, 4284, 4286, 4305, 4308, 4309, 4310, 4311, 4314, 4315, 4316, 4317, 4318, 4319, 4320, 4321, 4325, 4326, 4327, 4328, 4329, 4497, 4503, 4504, 4522, 4524, 4526, 4527, 4528, 4529, 4530, 4531, 4532, 4539, 4551, 4553, 4557, 4604, 4646, 4658, 4660, 4661, 4662, 4663, 4664, 4665, 4681, 4687, 4727, 4728, 4737, 4759, 4760, 4761, 4762, 4763, 4770, 4797, 4802, 4803, 4804, 4805, 4822, 4837, 4869, 4870, 4903, 4926, 4938, 5021, 5025, 5104, 5113, 5121, 5138, 5144, 5148, 5162, 5223, 5296, 5382, 5390, 5391, 5393, 5416, 5419, 5420, 5424, 5454, 5455, 5456, 5457, 5461, 5462, 5482, 5507, 5591, 5592, 5618, 5746, 5747, 5750, 5767, 5778, 5779, 5786, 5811, 5825, 5841, 5963, 5971, 5994, 5995, 6000, 6003, 6008, 6050, 6051, 6057, 6065, 6068, 6072, 6083, 6092, 6193, 6194, 6289, 6316, 6319, 6320, 6321, 6518, 6530, 6583, 6594, 6597, 6604, 6614, 6615, 6620, 6628

Serbo-Croatian  2198, 2199, 2221, 2222, 2755, 2756, 2912, 2922, 2987, 5046, 5132, 5519, 5676, 5677, 6302, 6328

Slovak  1486, 2933, 4061, 4603, 5376, 5722, 6623

Slovenian  5226, 5250

Spanish  44, 59, 60, 66, 67, 98, 99, 230, 273, 301, 330, 335, 387, 388, 389, 390, 416, 464, 560, 575, 576, 686, 687, 720, 832, 846, 847, 891, 904, 916, 1036, 1089, 1141, 1144, 1202, 1203, 1312, 1314, 1316, 1443, 1592, 1779, 1788, 1865, 2007, 2017, 2060, 2068, 2135, 2140, 2171, 2172, 2178, 2269, 2419, 2490, 2491, 2545, 2745, 2833, 3087, 3290, 3368, 3441, 3450, 3531, 3559, 3652, 3659, 3660, 3661, 3664, 3665, 3733, 3736, 3756, 3762, 3770, 3778, 3783, 3788, 3789, 3830, 3858, 3859, 3969, 4072, 4171, 4181, 4205, 4385, 4415, 4476, 4517, 4566, 4613, 4624, 4625, 4626, 4752, 4772, 4829, 4942, 4970, 4971, 5014, 5022, 5039, 5040, 5045, 5097, 5099, 5102, 5103, 5112, 5165, 5167, 5192, 5233, 5394, 5493, 5521, 5772, 5775, 5821, 6011, 6013, 6024, 6164, 6181, 6182, 6185, 6274, 6275, 6276

Swedish  61, 149, 1014, 2403, 4469, 4666, 5972

Turkish  1927

Ukrainian  509, 617, 831, 1438, 2939, 3032, 3276, 3289, 4223, 5381

Welsh  2895, 2896

Yiddish  3786


Languages of Topic

 

 

Works of general interest (works on typology and/or universals, works concerning a number of languages, works principally on theory, etc.) are listed below under general.  Loval varieties such as “Arabic (Cairo)” are listed separately after the main entry.  Languages with prefixes such as “Old, Middle, Modern, Southern,” etc., are generally alphabetized according to the prefix; thus “Biblical Aramaic” follows “Bhojpuri,” and “Middle Chinese” follows “Microneasian languages.”

 


‘Basaa 3904

Abkhaz 2510

Adyghe 2086

African languages 902, 2458

Afrikaans 1115, 1116, 1117, 1311, 5005, 6119, 6120, 6140, 6514

Afro-Asiatic languages 5341, 5711

Aguacatec 3905

Ainu 4904

Akateko 4613

Akkadian (Old Babylonian) 3760, 5105, 5472

Akøøse 2439

Albanian 106, 749, 1147, 1401, 1441, 1560, 1561, 1914, 1919, 1925, 4634

Aleut 450, 2134, 6092

Aleut (Attuan) 2133

Aleut, Copper Island (see Copper Island Aleut)

Algonquian languages 2796

Alsea 816

Altaic languages 2867, 3164, 3344

Amele (Huar) 131, 5008

American languages (see Native American Languages)

American sign language 3, 142, 1071, 1823, 1824, 1909, 1940, 2766, 3009, 4011, 6367

Amerindian languages (North America) 90, 6494

Amharic 121, 2122

Ancient Egyptian (see too Late Egyptian, Middle Egyptian, Old Egyptian) 2740, 3666, 3667, 4923, 5900

Anejom 3713

Angas 2920

Anglo-Saxon (see English, Old)

Apache (Western) 341

Apalai 3131

Arabic (see Classical Arabic, Modern Arabic, Old Arabic and varieties listed below)

Arabic (Cairo) 1512, 1637, 1638, 2400

Arabic (Early Literary) 5899

Arabic (Egypt) 2699, 4094

Arabic (Judeo-Arabic 1012

Arabic (Kuwait) 96

Arabic (Kuwaiti) 94

Arabic (Marocco) 940

Arabic (Modern) 4511

Arabic (Morocco) 941, 4029, 4030, 4031

Arabic (Old South) 4304

Arabic (Spoken Literary) 1512

Arabic (Tunisia) 417

Arabic (Yemen) 4255

Arumanian (see Ohrid Arumanian)

Atamaic, Biblical (see Biblical Aramaic and Modern Aramaic)

Athebaskan (see Koyukon Athabaskan)

Archin 3046

Argentinian sign language 1202, 1203

Armenian (see too Classical Armenian, Modern Eastern Armenian, Old Armenian) 15, 1496, 1722, 2054, 3004, 3196, 3199, 3200, 5405, 5924, 6015

Arop-Sissano 4424

Athapascan languages 4947

Auhelawa 3612

Australian languages 1483, 1484, 4004

Austronesian languages (see too Formosan Austronesian Languages) 1697, 4908

Avestan 3013

Awadhi 5639

Aymara 2068, 3812, 5741

Azerbaijani 69, 414, 2696, 2940, 4687, 5113, 5452

Babylonian, Old (see Akkadian, Old Babylonian)

Badaga 4682

Bafut 1024

Bagwalal 5847

Bahasa Indonesia (see Indonesian)

Balkan languages 221, 298, 1795, 1920, 1931, 1932, 2908, 4080, 5132, 5225, 5991

Balkan Slavic languages 1913

Balochi 25

Baltic languages 3397, 3411, 6180

Balto-Slavic languages 3168, 5315

Bambara 726

Bamileke-Dschang 2691

Bangwa 4370

Bantu languages 103, 697, 701, 1134, 1835, 2090, 2091, 2125, 2291, 4418, 5089, 5429, 6290

Bantu languages (Eastern) 691, 700, 6345

Bantu languages (Kenya) 6344

Bantu Languages (Tanzania, Kenya) 4417

Barbadian Creole 5084

Bargam 2479

Bari 4423

Bashkir 84

Basque 646, 777, 2281, 2282, 2283, 2695, 3920, 4982, 5068, 5924, 6453

Bastimentos (see Panamanian Creole English)

Batsi (see Tsova-Tush)

Beaver, Sekani (see Sekani Beaver)

Beja 6299

Belhare 514, 517, 1386

Belizean Creole 1714

Belorussian 3765, 4619, 6055, 6056

Bengali 275, 979, 980, 2059, 4858, 5384, 6526

Berber (Kabyle) 4023

Berber languages 908, 1979

Berbice Dutch 5010

Bhitrauti 2622

Bhojpuri 2917

Biblical Aramaic 555, 1657

Biblical Hebrew 56, 254, 329, 436, 446, 554, 555, 839, 1175, 1184, 1301, 1320, 1328, 1329, 1330, 1487, 1538, 1539, 1715, 1728, 2016, 2093, 2148, 2186, 2212, 2216, 2404, 2406, 2465, 2491, 2585, 2586, 2670, 2673, 2845, 2879, 2902, 2903, 2916, 3007, 3037, 3094, 3225, 3226, 3327, 3628, 3653, 3654, 3657, 3666, 3925, 4022, 4045, 4231, 4371, 4372, 4373, 4374, 4607, 4608, 4834, 4835, 4877, 4941, 5085, 5107, 5230, 5246, 5472, 5579, 6013, 6044, 6117, 6348, 6413, 6542, 6624

Binja, Southern (see Southern Binja)

Bislama 3713, 6353

Bissau-Bolama (see Guinea-Bissau Creole)

Bonggi 711

Brazilian Portuguese 342, 394, 715, 2703, 5156, 5309, 5359

Breton 2459, 2466, 2511, 2512, 4745

British Caribbean Creole 1745

British Celtic 3244

British sign language 737, 738

Buang, Central (see Central Buang)


Bulgarian (see too Old Bulgarian) 101, 161, 211, 212, 213, 214, 221, 398, 601, 678, 681, 689, 812, 828, 830, 869, 1028, 1033, 1242, 1253, 1381, 1382, 1399, 1400, 1431, 1438, 1466, 1467, 1468, 1531, 1536, 1791, 1797, 1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1835, 1907, 1915, 1916, 1918, 1919, 1925, 1930, 2001, 2161, 2231, 2232, 2233, 2235, 2237, 2238, 2239, 2240, 2754, 2858, 2923, 2926, 2927, 2929, 2931, 2980, 3186, 3228, 3230, 3333, 3336, 3363, 3583, 3597, 3598, 3599, 3600, 3606, 3721, 3795, 3796, 3797, 3835, 3838, 3842, 3846, 3914, 3915, 4048, 4055, 4056, 4057, 4058, 4064, 4232, 4245, 4382, 4388, 4404, 4478, 4610, 4614, 4615, 4646, 4654, 4655, 4656, 4657, 4658, 4659, 4664, 4743, 5121, 5227, 5343, 5352, 5379, 5517, 5645, 5650, 5651, 5652, 5683, 5717, 5719, 5720, 5721, 5723, 5843, 5902, 5903, 5905, 5921, 5924, 6003, 6167, 6192, 6193, 6195, 6196, 6201, 6354

Buriat 3754

Burmese 1137, 3504, 5580

Burushaski 5962

Byzantine Greek 6057

Caddo 953, 4097

Cameroon Pidgin English 5979

Cantonese 5870

Cape Verde Creole 867, 1411, 1442, 2893, 4394, 5914, 5484, 5485, 5915, 5916

Caribbean English-based creoles 3923, 4718,4959, 6476, 6478

Carriacou Creole 2065, 3027

Catalan 560, 561, 777, 1200, 1718, 2081, 3019, 3354, 3390, 4478, 5289, 5737, 5921, 5924, 5970

Caucasian languages (see too South Caucasian Languages) 1932

Cebaari 4155

Cebaari (Central Senari) 5614

Cebuano 2057

Celtic, British (see British Celtic)

Central Buang 3461

Central Pomo 4097, 4098

Central Sudanic 1732

Chabacano 3671

Chadic languages (see too West Chadic Languages) 1302, 2919, 5341, 6488, 6489, 6490

Chaga 1655

Chagga 1654

Chechen 3039

Cheremis 4254

Cherokee 4811

Chewa-Nyanja 48

ChiBemba 2090, 2091, 5412

Chicago 4871, 5788

ChiChewa 3771

ChiNdali 5808

Chindo 4842

Chinese (see too Chinese Languages, Mandarin, Middle Chinese and local varieties listed below) 159, 229, 318, 918, 964, 984, 987, 996, 997, 1019, 1022, 1252, 1548, 1618, 1753, 2300, 2460, 2653, 2709, 2710, 2840, 2860, 2946, 3064, 3068, 3105, 3113, 3343, 3566, 3568, 3573, 3574, 3579, 3615, 3616, 3621, 3623, 3764, 3961, 3968, 4548, 4568, 4929, 4930, 5422, 5448, 5551, 5620, 5631, 5770, 5777, 5809, 5831, 5840, 5866, 5867, 5868, 5869, 5944, 6358, 6412, 6600, 6602, 6606, 6608

Chinese (Taiwanese) 988

Chinese (Wu) 3962

Chinese languages 3578, 3874, 5771

Chinook 1085

Chinookan languages 1085, 5494

ChiYao 3771

Choctaw 772

Chontal 3124

Chuckchee 4320

Chuj 3890, 4613

Chukchee 4321, 4326, 4329

Chuvash 1772

Circassian languages 3028

Classic Maya 2644

Classical Arabic 3069, 3673, 4303, 5338, 5352

Classical Armenian 3714

Classical Languages 66, 4637, 5233

Comanche (Shoshoni) 3945

Comox 3280

Congo-Kordofanian languages 5503

Copala Trique 2604

Copper Island Aleut 2133

Coptic 2740

Costa Rica Creole 4752

Cree (Montagnais) 1215, 1216, 1217, 4945

Cree (Moose) 2795, 2796

Cree (Woods) 2188


Creole languages (see too British Caribbean Creole, Cape Verde Creole, Caribbean English Creoles, Carriacou Creole, Costa Rica Creole, French-Based Creole Languages, Guadeloupe Creole, Guinea-Bissau Creole, Guinea-Casamance Portuguese Creole, Gullah, Guyanese Creole, Haitian Creole, Hawaiian Creole, Isle-de-France Creole, Jamaican, Kriol (Northern Australia), Kriyol, Limon Creole, Louisiana Creole, Malacca Creole Portuguese, Martinique Creole, Mauritanian Creole, Mauritian Creole, Nubi Arabic Creole, Panamanian Creole English, Philippine Creole Spanish, Portuguese-Based Creoles, Réunionnais Creole, São Tome and Principe, São Tome Creole, Seychellois Creole, Spanish-Based Creoles, Trinidadian Creole, Virgin Islands English Creole) 81, 129, 277, 394, 518, 519, 520, 667, 1296, 1311, 2095, 3352, 3873, 3874, 4247,  4519, 5442, 5829

Czech (see too Czechoslovakian, Old Czech) 327, 373, 619, 979, 1197, 1266, 1267, 1270, 1491, 1584, 1609, 1610, 1811, 1841, 2229, 2307, 2340, 2341, 2342, 2464, 2732, 3127, 3158, 3159, 3160, 3161, 3162, 3163, 3216, 3220, 3277, 3291, 3292, 3294, 4073, 4296, 4348, 4403, 4660, 4664, 4665, 4711, 4726, 5121, 5401, 5515, 5759, 5760, 5762, 6049, 6076, 6604, 6623

Czechoslovakian 4549

Dagestanian languages 2697

Damara 3097

Danish 255, 1282, 1285, 1286, 1359, 1630, 2286, 2464, 2642, 2768, 2877, 2905, 3112, 3648, 3649, 4477, 4502, 5515, 5611, 5985, 6273

Danish-Norwegian 1744

Dargwa 3739

Denya 7

Dharghinian 11

Diegueno (Jamul) 3016, 3017

Dioula 5177

Dravidian languages (see too South Dravidian Languages) 8, 4854, 5408, 5508, 5672, 5673, 5964, 6086

Dravo-Polabian 5778, 5779

Dusun (Tatana) 4611


Dutch (see too Middle Dutch) 5, 99, 219, 234, 347, 615, 655, 656, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661, 663, 685, 734, 771, 774, 780, 932, 933, 935, 1058, 1086, 1115, 1220, 1256, 1308, 1309, 1315, 1323, 1488, 1530, 1532, 1541, 1542, 1578, 1590, 1601, 1685, 1876, 2251, 2278, 2279, 2292, 2299, 2414, 2534, 2601, 2602, 2603, 2807, 2809, 2810, 2811, 2812, 2813, 2814, 2815, 2816, 2817, 2820, 2821, 2826, 2827, 2828, 2899, 3030, 3085, 3157, 3166, 3167, 3242, 3391, 3468, 3469, 3470, 3515, 3640, 4142, 4147, 4225, 4513, 4515, 4516, 4764, 4769, 4855, 4856, 4956, 4981, 4989, 5176, 5346, 5530, 5531, 5655, 5795, 5809, 5921, 6007, 6105, 6132, 6133, 6136, 6139, 6146, 6152, 6203, 6204, 6207, 6209, 6230, 6282, 6293, 6314, 6329, 6452

East Slavic languages 831

Egyptian, Ancient (see Ancient Egyptian)

Emai 5236

English (see too Middle English, Old English, Samana English, and varieties listed below) 4, 5, 16, 26, 32, 39, 41, 43, 53, 77, 78, 82, 83, 85, 90, 95, 99, 119, 127, 139, 148, 157, 162, 181, 188, 189, 191, 195, 206, 216, 223, 227, 235, 241, 246, 252, 253, 256, 259, 261, 262, 264, 266, 270, 278, 279, 315, 341, 345, 350, 372, 378, 408, 409, 410, 412, 413, 426, 429, 430, 432, 445, 447, 457, 480, 484, 490, 491, 493, 508, 526, 527, 530, 534, 536, 553, 557, 559, 566, 577, 585, 606, 607, 608, 609, 658, 661, 663, 664, 684, 685, 702, 705, 727, 730, 731, 732, 733, 734, 735, 756, 757, 759, 760, 761, 763, 765, 766, 768, 769, 770, 771, 780, 783, 789, 791, 796, 801, 804, 806, 807, 808, 832, 853, 854, 858, 865, 872, 882, 886, 887, 888, 893, 895, 896, 899, 905, 909, 923, 930, 947, 952, 972, 974, 975, 976, 985, 1003, 1009, 1010, 1019, 1028, 1033, 1039, 1046, 1047, 1048, 1049, 1053, 1056, 1062, 1063, 1064, 1065, 1066, 1067, 1079, 1080, 1098, 1101, 1114, 1128, 1130, 1146, 1151, 1155, 1156, 1157, 1159, 1160, 1161, 1162, 1163, 1164, 1165, 1166, 1168, 1169, 1170, 1171, 1172, 1177, 1179, 1190, 1194, 1200, 1205, 1207, 1209, 1214, 1224, 1250, 1253, 1254, 1268, 1269, 1270, 1277, 1282, 1283, 1284, 1285, 1286, 1309, 1321, 1323, 1334, 1336, 1341, 1344, 1345, 1346, 1347, 1348, 1350, 1351, 1353, 1355, 1358, 1359, 1360, 1361, 1362, 1363, 1364, 1365, 1366, 1367, 1368, 1369, 1370, 1371, 1372, 1373, 1374, 1375, 1376, 1377, 1378, 1388, 1396, 1397, 1410, 1412, 1415, 1416, 1417, 1418, 1419, 1420, 1436, 1439, 1442, 1444, 1454, 1455, 1461, 1464, 1465, 1468, 1471, 1472, 1473, 1474, 1480, 1487, 1506, 1507, 1511, 1519, 1521, 1522, 1524, 1525, 1526, 1527, 1529, 1545, 1546, 1547, 1548, 1553, 1554, 1564, 1567, 1568, 1569, 1578, 1584, 1608, 1613, 1614, 1615, 1632, 1634, 1638, 1640, 1643, 1644, 1646, 1652, 1653, 1655, 1661, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1683, 1685, 1692, 1693, 1698, 1704, 1709, 1718, 1725, 1726, 1756, 1758, 1771, 1774, 1775, 1776, 1789, 1814, 1818, 1827, 1831, 1835, 1839, 1865,

English (continued)

       1892, 1898, 1899, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1908, 1934, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1943, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1954, 1960, 1963, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1985, 1986, 2015, 2031, 2033, 2034, 2036, 2047, 2055, 2081, 2102, 2103, 2124, 2126, 2140, 2141, 2144, 2145, 2149, 2150, 2166, 2177, 2182, 2189, 2218, 2223, 2225, 2241, 2243, 2250, 2251, 2257, 2267, 2292, 2294, 2295, 2297, 2298, 2299, 2307, 2315, 2316, 2318, 2324, 2325, 2327, 2328, 2338, 2343, 2349, 2353, 2354, 2359, 2360, 2361, 2362, 2363, 2366, 2371, 2401, 2402, 2405, 2406, 2408, 2413, 2421, 2427, 2445, 2449, 2464, 2467, 2478, 2511, 2512, 2521, 2522, 2525, 2527, 2530, 2536, 2537, 2538, 2539, 2540, 2541, 2542, 2543, 2548, 2549, 2551, 2552, 2553, 2554, 2555, 2556, 2558, 2560, 2562, 2563, 2570, 2581, 2582, 2583, 2587, 2589, 2601, 2602, 2608, 2625, 2633, 2634, 2637, 2639, 2646, 2647, 2654, 2655, 2663, 2665, 2666, 2667, 2668, 2669, 2671, 2675, 2686, 2689, 2694, 2695, 2702, 2703, 2705, 2717, 2719, 2720, 2721, 2722, 2738, 2757, 2758, 2762, 2763, 2767, 2768, 2773, 2777, 2778, 2779, 2780, 2801, 2825, 2827, 2844, 2850, 2853, 2854, 2855, 2857, 2861, 2864, 2877, 2886, 2900, 2901, 2904, 2915, 2921, 2927, 2928, 2932, 2945, 2947, 2958, 2959, 2984, 2986, 2994, 3005, 3012, 3014, 3015, 3018, 3022, 3026, 3033, 3040, 3051, 3052, 3055, 3073, 3074, 3076, 3088, 3098, 3101, 3102, 3107, 3112, 3113, 3146, 3147, 3148, 3149, 3151, 3152, 3153, 3166, 3167, 3171, 3201, 3203, 3204, 3205, 3231, 3233, 3242, 3243, 3249, 3270, 3274, 3276, 3289, 3291, 3292, 3303, 3304, 3305, 3330, 3332, 3347, 3348, 3356, 3358, 3360, 3383, 3384, 3386, 3387, 3388, 3389, 3392, 3394, 3395, 3396, 3399, 3400, 3401, 3404, 3405, 3406, 3407, 3409, 3418, 3419, 3422, 3423, 3424, 3425, 3443, 3472, 3477, 3481, 3487, 3488, 3489, 3494, 3495, 3496, 3502, 3509, 3522, 3523, 3529, 3548, 3550, 3557, 3574, 3575, 3581, 3584, 3587, 3614, 3627, 3636, 3642, 3655, 3658, 3709, 3718, 3719, 3727, 3728, 3767, 3770, 3771, 3772, 3775, 3784, 3790, 3791, 3794, 3814, 3833, 3844, 3860, 3864, 3867, 3869, 3870, 3871, 3875, 3876, 3880, 3908, 3909, 3910, 3911, 3912, 3913, 3916, 3917, 3918, 3919, 3921, 3926, 3930, 3951, 3971, 3972, 3973, 3975, 3985, 3990, 3999, 4000, 4001, 4002, 4023, 4025, 4027, 4029, 4030, 4033, 4035, 4038, 4039, 4040, 4041, 4054, 4074, 4081, 4085, 4093, 4095, 4101, 4102, 4105, 4107, 4108, 4109, 4134, 4135, 4155, 4161, 4163, 4164, 4169, 4176, 4184, 4188, 4189, 4190, 4192, 4199, 4201, 4209, 4241, 4250, 4258, 4260, 4261, 4262, 4263, 4264, 4265, 4266, 4267, 4268, 4272, 4274, 4282, 4311, 4331, 4336, 4337, 4338, 4339, 4340, 4341, 4342, 4346, 4359, 4360, 4369, 4377, 4379, 4392, 4393, 4394, 4401, 4403, 4414, 4419, 4431, 4432, 4441, 4442, 4448, 4450, 4453, 4454, 4457, 4460, 4461, 4462, 4464, 4471, 4481, 4482, 4484, 4486, 4489, 4500, 4501, 4506, 4507, 4518, 4540, 4541, 4542, 4543,

English (continued)

       4544, 4559, 4561, 4562, 4573, 4579, 4580, 4581, 4582, 4583, 4594, 4596, 4604, 4617, 4622, 4626, 4629, 4630, 4633, 4648, 4669, 4672, 4675, 4677, 4699, 4725, 4756, 4785, 4786, 4789, 4792, 4793, 4794, 4808, 4812, 4826, 4827, 4833, 4837, 4847, 4848, 4862, 4863, 4873, 4882, 4886, 4887, 4888, 4891, 4893, 4894, 4896, 4906, 4907, 4916, 4920, 4927, 4955, 4956, 4962, 4963, 4964, 4967, 4972, 4973, 4974, 4975, 4977, 4978, 4979, 4981, 4994, 4998, 5001, 5004, 5049, 5060, 5061, 5062, 5063, 5065, 5066, 5069, 5070, 5071, 5087, 5095, 5096, 5110, 5119, 5139, 5145, 5150, 5164, 5170, 5174, 5176, 5182, 5183, 5186, 5187, 5188, 5190, 5191, 5193, 5196, 5199, 5203, 5223, 5237, 5245, 5248, 5263, 5264, 5265, 5266, 5272, 5276, 5303, 5304, 5319, 5320, 5321, 5322, 5323, 5324, 5325, 5326, 5327, 5328, 5344, 5345, 5348, 5353, 5355, 5402, 5403, 5404, 5414, 5417, 5423, 5440, 5448, 5473, 5483, 5487, 5503, 5527, 5533, 5535, 5536, 5537, 5538, 5539, 5541, 5542, 5543, 5545, 5546, 5548, 5549, 5553, 5562, 5576, 5577, 5602, 5603, 5607, 5612, 5613, 5615, 5616, 5622, 5627, 5629, 5645, 5653, 5657, 5662, 5670, 5680, 5713, 5714, 5716, 5737, 5738, 5739, 5781, 5782, 5791, 5795, 5799, 5800, 5824, 5830, 5832, 5843, 5856, 5857, 5858, 5861, 5872, 5875, 5877, 5884, 5888, 5894, 5895, 5918, 5921, 5925, 5940, 5941, 5943, 5952, 5953, 5954, 5959, 5960, 5961, 5977, 5978, 5985, 6004, 6027, 6028, 6031, 6036, 6037, 6038, 6040, 6045, 6054, 6063, 6064, 6065, 6069, 6071, 6074, 6077, 6085, 6090, 6106, 6115, 6122, 6123, 6128, 6136, 6142, 6146, 6147, 6148, 6165, 6172, 6191, 6203, 6205, 6215, 6216, 6230, 6249, 6267, 6273, 6277, 6280, 6281, 6283, 6286, 6287, 6288, 6292, 6293, 6303, 6307, 6308, 6329, 6335, 6336, 6340, 6341, 6353, 6359, 6360, 6365, 6366, 6368, 6370, 6388, 6389, 6393, 6396, 6404, 6408, 6414, 6417, 6424, 6425, 6435, 6439, 6447, 6455, 6471, 6486, 6494, 6496, 6498, 6502, 6504, 6514, 6515, 6525, 6526, 6532, 6541, 6557, 6561, 6564, 6573, 6576, 6582, 6586, 6587, 6590, 6591, 6600, 6601, 6603, 6606, 6609, 6616, 6632, 6634, 6641, 6642

English (Africa) 4111

English (African-American) 4742

English (American) 111, 1550, 1583, 2026, 2889,3646, 3690, 3896, 4505, 6016, 6160, 6497

English (American Indian) 339, 340

English (Australia) 1639, 1676

English (Black American) 3894, 3895, 3897

English (Black English) 144, 385, 1298, 1326, 1617, 1762, 2527, 3646, 4249, 4741, 4959, 5306, 5522, 5826, 5828, 5829, 6475, 6478

English (British Guiana) 112

English (British) 1583, 2293, 2296, 6407

English (Caribbean ) 6459

English (India) 2154

English (Ireland) 1944, 1945, 2527, 4959, 6477

English (Liberia) 5502

English (Liberian Settler English) 5505

English (Nepali) 2378, 4043

English (Newfoundland) 1052

English (Papua New Guinea) 4221, 5532

English (Samana) 5827

English (Singapore) 318, 3560, 4712

English (South Africa) 6513

English (Trinidad and Tobago) 6562

English (Trinidad) 6560

English-based pidgins 1969

Eskimo-Aleut languages 3996, 3997

Esperanto 1381

Estonian 883, 2940, 4013, 4014, 4015, 4016, 4017, 4018, 4019, 4020, 4021, 4679, 4681, 5924, 6304

Ethiopian 5105

Eudeve 5415

Evenki 4306, 4307, 4323

Ewe 1055

Ewe (Gengbe) 3565

Ewe (Kwa) 2454

Fante 866

Fez) 1012

Fijian 204

Finnish (see too Old Finnish) 193, 753, 1249, 1309, 1851, 2310, 2311, 2447, 2448, 2450, 2451, 2706, 2707, 2708, 2743, 2744, 2969, 2971, 2972, 2996, 3082, 3083, 3250, 3397, 3411, 3514, 3516, 3517, 3592, 3720, 3790, 3955, 4017, 4018, 4381, 4492, 4824, 5283, 5284, 5385, 5768, 5795, 5921, 5986, 5987, 5994, 5996, 5997, 5998, 5999, 6001, 6003, 6009, 6136, 6304, 6404, 6450, 6545

Finno-Ugric languages 2970, 3737, 3744, 4821, 5390, 5416, 6180

Fon (Kwa) 6484

Fongbe 1335, 3408, 3497, 3498, 3499

Formosan Austronesian languages 6593


French (see too Middle French, Old French and varieties listed below) 14, 50, 51, 85, 89, 162, 171, 172, 173, 208, 220, 226, 230, 234, 251, 268, 311, 331, 333, 334, 401, 402, 407, 423, 440, 443, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 477, 502, 539, 546, 565, 573, 586, 596, 597, 612, 616, 646, 670, 671, 673, 674, 675, 677, 685, 689, 690, 706, 707, 708, 712, 713, 725, 739, 741, 742, 743, 744, 745, 746, 754, 777, 779, 800, 805, 809, 818, 831, 848, 875, 885, 890, 911, 912, 913, 914, 920, 938, 942, 946, 948, 959, 981, 999, 1016, 1018, 1025, 1040, 1044, 1045, 1059, 1074, 1078, 1086, 1087, 1111, 1113, 1134, 1136, 1151, 1176, 1199, 1260, 1261, 1272, 1280, 1281, 1294, 1295, 1303, 1304, 1318, 1321, 1322, 1390, 1392, 1408, 1413, 1430, 1431, 1432, 1434, 1435, 1495, 1509, 1552, 1555, 1556, 1558, 1559, 1562, 1571, 1575, 1597, 1598, 1625, 1650, 1658, 1667, 1668, 1669, 1670, 1671, 1672, 1673, 1674, 1675, 1678, 1679, 1680, 1681, 1686, 1692, 1729, 1746, 1763, 1764, 1766, 1768, 1769, 1794, 1806, 1835, 1839, 1847, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1873, 1874, 1876, 1881, 1882, 1887, 1888, 1890, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1984, 2002, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2055, 2112, 2113, 2127, 2158, 2159, 2165, 2206, 2213, 2214, 2232, 2235, 2236, 2245, 2247, 2253, 2256, 2257, 2258, 2281, 2290, 2299, 2305, 2345, 2372, 2403, 2404, 2407, 2418, 2429, 2430, 2441, 2461, 2462, 2463, 2473, 2474, 2489, 2497, 2514, 2516, 2529, 2568, 2575, 2612, 2630, 2641, 2672, 2679, 2681, 2699, 2700, 2712, 2713, 2726, 2798, 2838, 2841, 2842, 2890, 2892, 2899, 2907, 2914, 2934, 2938, 2940, 2942, 2955, 2958, 2960, 2961, 2963, 2980, 3003, 3012, 3019, 3033, 3051, 3052, 3090, 3096, 3120, 3147, 3172, 3173, 3207, 3208, 3210, 3214, 3254, 3284, 3316, 3321, 3346, 3348, 3349, 3350, 3369, 3370, 3371, 3372, 3373, 3376, 3377, 3378, 3379, 3399, 3402, 3438, 3439, 3454, 3455, 3457, 3458, 3459, 3460, 3464, 3465, 3487, 3498, 3499, 3541, 3543, 3609, 3622, 3636, 3645, 3668, 3670, 3672, 3681, 3698, 3699, 3700, 3715, 3734, 3741, 3742, 3743, 3747, 3763, 3798, 3800, 3818, 3821, 3826, 3827, 3828, 3829, 3844, 3867, 3881, 3965, 3974, 3979, 4028, 4048, 4055, 4056, 4057, 4058, 4092, 4117, 4119, 4128, 4129, 4130, 4131, 4139, 4140, 4141, 4143, 4144, 4145, 4146, 4147, 4148, 4150, 4158, 4173, 4174, 4175, 4204, 4228, 4229, 4278, 4283, 4332, 4334, 4382, 4383, 4384, 4389, 4399, 4404, 4407, 4432, 4473, 4488, 4496, 4509, 4535, 4574, 4612, 4639, 4670, 4678, 4686, 4693, 4711, 4719, 4720, 4721, 4722, 4733, 4734, 4754, 4758, 4769, 4772, 4775, 4778, 4807, 4808, 4865, 4874, 4889, 4902, 4903, 4910, 4911, 4912, 4913, 4929, 4931, 4966, 4999, 5000, 5001, 5003, 5016, 5031, 5032, 5033, 5034, 5069, 5076, 5081, 5123, 5126, 5131, 5152, 5182, 5201, 5202, 5204, 5206, 5212, 5213, 5214, 5215, 5216, 5218, 5220, 5260, 5291, 5302, 5311, 5312, 5313, 5314, 5330, 5335, 5336, 5337, 5462, 5463, 5464, 5511, 5523, 5553, 5567, 5574, 5590,

French (continued)

       5594, 5596, 5599, 5617, 5651, 5655, 5656, 5674, 5675, 5680, 5684, 5686, 5703, 5704, 5706, 5707, 5708, 5709, 5713, 5749, 5773, 5774, 5799, 5800, 5801, 5802, 5804, 5806, 5807, 5810, 5844, 5845, 5846, 5863, 5864, 5865, 5894, 5896, 5897, 5898, 5921, 5924, 5931, 5982, 5989, 5990, 6020, 6022, 6023, 6078, 6079, 6081, 6090, 6099, 6100, 6101, 6145, 6149, 6171, 6200, 6221, 6227, 6228, 6230, 6232, 6233, 6235, 6239, 6240, 6245, 6248, 6251, 6253, 6254, 6255, 6257, 6258, 6259, 6261, 6262, 6263, 6269, 6270, 6271, 6273, 6284, 6296, 6297, 6298, 6326, 6327, 6349, 6350, 6355, 6357, 6363, 6364, 6370, 6375, 6376, 6378, 6379, 6380, 6385, 6386, 6396, 6400, 6438, 6462, 6465, 6466, 6467, 6468, 6469, 6474, 6484, 6546, 6547, 6565, 6566, 6567, 6568, 6599, 6619

French (Canada) 3437, 4739, 4740

French-based creole languages 1509, 5679

Frisian (see too Old Frisian) 1600, 1605, 3953, 6116, 6139

Fula (Gombe) 209, 908, 1324, 1325, 1666, 4402, 6104, 6628

Ga’dang 1859

Gaelic, Irish (see Irish Gaelic)

Caelic, Scots (see Scottish Gaelic)

Galician 4170, 6184

Gbaya ‘Bodoe 5078

Gbaya Kara ‘Bodoe 5079

general 12, 17, 21, 22, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 40, 42, 49, 54, 55, 57, 58, 79, 90, 107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 126, 128, 135, 137, 138, 140, 141, 143, 145, 146, 147, 154, 160, 170, 175, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 186, 187, 190, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 217, 224, 233, 257, 258, 259, 260, 263, 265, 267, 281, 291, 300, 310, 314, 319, 321, 344, 348, 349, 357, 358, 359, 360, 369, 374, 377, 379, 381, 382, 396, 397, 400, 420, 424, 427, 428, 431, 433, 439, 474, 476, 481, 483, 486, 487, 492, 494, 497, 498, 499, 503, 510, 511, 515, 516, 522, 523, 528, 529, 533, 535, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552, 559, 569, 570, 584, 593, 598, 605, 629, 636, 637, 639, 641, 642, 649, 652, 657, 662, 666, 672, 676, 703, 710, 714, 718, 721, 722, 723, 733, 740, 751, 756, 758, 762, 767, 775, 776, 778, 784, 785, 788, 790, 793, 823, 824, 834, 835, 836, 837, 842, 843, 851, 852, 857, 859, 860, 861, 862, 863, 870, 871, 874, 889, 898, 900, 901, 903, 910, 936, 937, 943, 944, 945, 949, 954, 955, 956, 962, 977, 978, 1000, 1001, 1002, 1005, 1013, 1026, 1030, 1032, 1037, 1038, 1050, 1061, 1068, 1072, 1075, 1076, 1088, 1090, 1091, 1092, 1093, 1094, 1096, 1097, 1099, 1102, 1103, 1106, 1108, 1124, 1126, 1127, 1128, 1129, 1142, 1143, 1150, 1153, 1154, 1158, 1167, 1173, 1174, 1178, 1180, 1181, 1182, 1183, 1188, 1189, 1191, 1201, 1210, 1225, 1226, 1227, 1228, 1229, 1231,

general (continued)

       1232, 1233, 1235, 1236, 1237, 1238, 1239, 1240, 1243, 1247, 1271, 1287, 1288, 1289, 1300, 1305, 1309, 1331, 1332, 1333, 1342, 1343, 1349, 1352, 1354, 1356, 1357, 1383, 1389, 1398, 1402, 1405, 1414, 1421, 1425, 1426, 1427, 1428, 1429, 1433, 1452, 1460, 1469, 1478, 1482, 1492, 1497, 1504, 1510, 1520, 1522, 1523, 1526, 1527, 1528, 1529, 1533, 1534, 1535, 1546, 1547, 1565, 1580, 1585, 1593, 1594, 1599, 1620, 1621, 1622, 1623, 1624, 1631, 1633, 1641, 1659, 1660, 1662, 1677, 1684, 1687, 1710, 1711, 1712, 1716, 1723, 1724, 1730, 1731, 1739, 1741, 1742, 1743, 1747, 1760, 1770, 1777, 1782, 1783, 1790, 1792, 1808, 1810, 1812, 1813, 1815, 1816, 1817, 1819, 1820, 1822, 1825, 1833, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1850, 1856, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1889, 1894, 1895, 1897, 1912, 1933, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1974, 1975, 1981, 1982, 1987, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 2003, 2006, 2012, 2020, 2024, 2030, 2035, 2038, 2039, 2046, 2048, 2050, 2053, 2058, 2063, 2066, 2084, 2089, 2092, 2094, 2095, 2096, 2097, 2099, 2100, 2101, 2104, 2105, 2108, 2111, 2114, 2116, 2121, 2123, 2129, 2137, 2146, 2151, 2152, 2153, 2155, 2157, 2160, 2170, 2178, 2200, 2201, 2207, 2220, 2224, 2242, 2244, 2248, 2254, 2259, 2271, 2273, 2280, 2285, 2288, 2306, 2308, 2309, 2317, 2319, 2326, 2329, 2330, 2331, 2337, 2352, 2357, 2365, 2367, 2368, 2369, 2370, 2371, 2389, 2390, 2391, 2394, 2398, 2420, 2423, 2438, 2442, 2443, 2444, 2446, 2457, 2470, 2477, 2485, 2486, 2487, 2496, 2498, 2500, 2503, 2504, 2515, 2517, 2523, 2524, 2542, 2543, 2544, 2550, 2559, 2560, 2561, 2565, 2567, 2570, 2571, 2573, 2579, 2580, 2584, 2588, 2628, 2629, 2631, 2632, 2635, 2636, 2638, 2643, 2650, 2661, 2662, 2664, 2676, 2687, 2701, 2716, 2736, 2745, 2751, 2760, 2761, 2776, 2782, 2794, 2808, 2818, 2819, 2822, 2823, 2824, 2829, 2830, 2835, 2837, 2851, 2852, 2856, 2873, 2875, 2880, 2885, 2886, 2887, 2888, 2891, 2894, 2906, 2925, 2933, 2943, 2948, 2950, 2951, 2952, 2953, 2954, 2956, 2957, 2962, 2964, 2965, 2973, 2983, 2988, 2991, 2993, 3001, 3010, 3023, 3024, 3044, 3051, 3052, 3062, 3070, 3075, 3093, 3099, 3100, 3114, 3116, 3133, 3137, 3150, 3171, 3176, 3179, 3184, 3187, 3193, 3194, 3195, 3197, 3198, 3202, 3206, 3209, 3211, 3218, 3222, 3227, 3232, 3234, 3235, 3236, 3238, 3239, 3240, 3248, 3255, 3257, 3258, 3259, 3260, 3261, 3263, 3264, 3265, 3266, 3268, 3269, 3271, 3272, 3273, 3275, 3278, 3283, 3293, 3296, 3297, 3298, 3301, 3305, 3308, 3309, 3310, 3311, 3318, 3329, 3331, 3334, 3335, 3342, 3345, 3351, 3353, 3359, 3361, 3366, 3367, 3372, 3373, 3374, 3375, 3380, 3381, 3382, 3398, 3413, 3414, 3415, 3416, 3417, 3418, 3420, 3421, 3426, 3447, 3448, 3449, 3466, 3471, 3478, 3491, 3526, 3534, 3540, 3551, 3552, 3553, 3554, 3555, 3556, 3561, 3564, 3582, 3586, 3595, 3596, 3603, 3607, 3608, 3626, 3632, 3633,

general (continued)

       3635, 3637, 3656, 3669, 3686, 3687, 3691, 3692, 3696, 3697, 3716, 3717, 3722, 3725, 3726, 3735, 3745, 3753, 3757, 3769, 3781, 3785, 3799, 3822, 3825, 3836, 3843, 3851, 3854, 3855, 3856, 3857, 3868, 3872, 3888, 3898, 3906, 3907, 3909, 3922, 3924, 3927, 3928, 3929, 3931, 3947, 3949, 3950, 3981, 3983, 3984, 3991, 4006, 4034, 4052, 4067, 4087, 4104, 4106, 4113, 4114, 4115, 4116, 4118, 4120, 4121, 4122, 4123, 4125, 4126, 4127, 4133, 4151, 4154, 4156, 4160, 4162, 4164, 4193, 4203, 4206, 4216, 4230, 4233, 4235, 4236, 4237, 4242, 4276, 4277, 4279, 4289, 4290, 4292, 4293, 4302, 4308, 4314, 4315, 4316, 4317, 4318, 4324, 4325, 4330, 4333, 4335, 4343, 4344, 4345, 4347, 4351, 4380, 4387, 4398, 4410, 4411, 4413, 4421, 4437, 4438, 4439, 4451, 4452, 4455, 4456, 4470, 4476, 4483, 4484, 4487, 4495, 4512, 4514, 4545, 4546, 4547, 4550, 4554, 4555, 4556, 4577, 4578, 4584, 4585, 4586, 4587, 4588, 4589, 4590, 4591, 4592, 4593, 4597, 4598, 4601, 4609, 4616, 4620, 4621, 4623, 4628, 4638, 4640, 4641, 4642, 4643, 4650, 4651, 4652, 4653, 4668, 4674, 4684, 4698, 4700, 4701, 4702, 4707, 4708, 4709, 4717, 4723, 4732, 4735, 4753, 4755, 4773, 4776, 4777, 4790, 4791, 4794, 4795, 4796, 4802, 4807, 4809, 4810, 4813, 4814, 4815, 4816, 4817, 4818, 4819, 4820, 4846, 4849, 4866, 4867, 4881, 4883, 4885, 4892, 4895, 4899, 4906, 4915, 4917, 4918, 4919, 4921, 4924, 4937, 4943, 4948, 4949, 4950, 4953, 4954, 4960, 4961, 4965, 4976, 4980, 4983, 4990, 4991, 4995, 4996, 5002, 5007, 5018, 5020, 5023, 5027, 5028, 5029, 5030, 5035, 5050, 5051, 5072, 5073, 5083, 5100, 5122, 5134, 5149, 5151, 5154, 5162, 5166, 5168, 5175, 5176, 5194, 5195, 5197, 5198, 5205, 5207, 5208, 5209, 5210, 5211, 5217, 5219, 5244, 5251, 5252, 5253, 5267, 5269, 5273, 5274, 5275, 5281, 5282, 5286, 5332, 5333, 5339, 5340, 5346, 5347, 5356, 5358, 5360, 5363, 5366, 5367, 5370, 5374, 5376, 5378, 5409, 5413, 5441, 5445, 5458, 5459, 5460, 5477, 5480, 5486, 5495, 5496, 5497, 5509, 5516, 5526, 5529, 5534, 5540, 5544, 5547, 5550, 5554, 5555, 5557, 5558, 5559, 5560, 5563, 5566, 5568, 5569, 5570, 5571, 5572, 5573, 5581, 5600, 5601, 5632, 5635, 5641, 5660, 5661, 5663, 5664, 5667, 5669, 5678, 5692, 5695, 5696, 5697, 5701, 5705, 5710, 5715, 5725, 5727, 5732, 5733, 5734, 5735, 5736, 5740, 5744, 5745, 5748, 5758, 5772, 5794, 5796, 5797, 5798, 5803, 5837, 5850, 5851, 5852, 5853, 5859, 5860, 5871, 5873, 5874, 5876, 5878, 5879, 5880, 5881, 5882, 5883, 5885, 5886, 5887, 5910, 5911, 5912, 5913, 5920, 5935, 5936, 5937, 5938, 5939, 5942, 5946, 5947, 5949, 5957, 5958, 5959, 5988, 5992, 5993, 6029, 6030, 6033, 6034, 6035, 6066, 6072, 6080, 6098, 6102, 6107, 6108, 6109, 6110, 6111, 6112, 6113, 6114, 6118, 6121, 6125, 6126, 6127, 6134, 6135, 6137, 6138, 6153, 6154, 6156, 6159, 6169, 6170, 6188, 6189, 6190, 6191, 6208, 6210, 6211,

general (continued)

       6212, 6213, 6214, 6217, 6218, 6219, 6220, 6226, 6229, 6231, 6234, 6236, 6237, 6238, 6241, 6242, 6243, 6244, 6245, 6246, 6252, 6256, 6260, 6272, 6276, 6285, 6289, 6293, 6306, 6310, 6313, 6315, 6322, 6323, 6324, 6330, 6332, 6337, 6338, 6339, 6343, 6352, 6356, 6377, 6381, 6382, 6383, 6398, 6402, 6403, 6406, 6409, 6410, 6426, 6427, 6428, 6429, 6433, 6434, 6440, 6443, 6445, 6446, 6448, 6451, 6457, 6458, 6463, 6470, 6474, 6495, 6498, 6506, 6509, 6511, 6520, 6530, 6543, 6544, 6559, 6570, 6571, 6572, 6575, 6580, 6585, 6598, 6605, 6620, 6627, 6629, 6630, 6631, 6633, 6635, 6639

Georgian (see too Old Georgian) 27, 28, 583, 1230, 1586, 2593, 2594, 2595, 2596, 2597, 2598, 2714, 3724, 5292, 5298, 5315

German (see too German, Pennsylvania below and Middle High German, Old High German, Swiss German) 14, 16, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25, 150, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 234, 235, 253, 274, 296, 297, 302, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 312, 347, 350, 351, 352, 354, 375, 376, 378, 380, 383, 384, 391, 392, 395, 404, 409, 410, 484, 539, 669, 685, 746, 752, 777, 781, 782, 887, 916, 931, 932, 933, 934, 935, 1039, 1053, 1057, 1101, 1107, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1122, 1123, 1139, 1140, 1206, 1219, 1221, 1222, 1255, 1270, 1290, 1448, 1449, 1450, 1451, 1456, 1466, 1468, 1479, 1489, 1493, 1506, 1544, 1563, 1578, 1595, 1601, 1608, 1612, 1619, 1627, 1628, 1629, 1630, 1635, 1636, 1642, 1682, 1705, 1706, 1734, 1735, 1736, 1737, 1738, 1740, 1744, 1751, 1764, 1793, 1809, 1875, 1887, 1891, 1896, 1899, 1903, 1949, 2037, 2040, 2041, 2042, 2043, 2052, 2107, 2110, 2115, 2118, 2119, 2194, 2195, 2196, 2197, 2205, 2208, 2211, 2215, 2292, 2303, 2322, 2332, 2351, 2384, 2388, 2412, 2456, 2468, 2471, 2475, 2499, 2501, 2534, 2576, 2742, 2745, 2783, 2784, 2803, 2804, 2814, 2843, 2989, 2999, 3000, 3038, 3090, 3102, 3104, 3106, 3107, 3118, 3119, 3123, 3126, 3138, 3147, 3153, 3189, 3223, 3242, 3267, 3281, 3303, 3307, 3312, 3315, 3364, 3431, 3432, 3433, 3434, 3435, 3468, 3469, 3470, 3520, 3521, 3524, 3525, 3527, 3541, 3576, 3589, 3593, 3594, 3613, 3639, 3641, 3643, 3644, 3685, 3688, 3689, 3710, 3711, 3719, 3782, 3794, 3802, 3803, 3804, 3805, 3806, 3807, 3808, 3809, 3844, 3878, 3946, 3952, 3959, 3964, 4012, 4170, 4186, 4191, 4220, 4238, 4240, 4251, 4252, 4309, 4310, 4311, 4312, 4313, 4328, 4349, 4350, 4390, 4469, 4477, 4494, 4508, 4614, 4629, 4630, 4654, 4656, 4696, 4730, 4808, 4832, 4839, 4859, 4860, 4875, 4876, 4882, 4886, 4932, 4933, 4934, 4935, 5131, 5158, 5159, 5160, 5169, 5237, 5240, 5241, 5242, 5243, 5247, 5268, 5270, 5271, 5272, 5278, 5279, 5293, 5305, 5431, 5438, 5471, 5498, 5506, 5565, 5578, 5593, 5633, 5658, 5680, 5682, 5693, 5694, 5698, 5699, 5713, 5721, 5750, 5795, 5838, 5839, 5840, 5842, 5861, 5862, 5919, 5921, 5922, 5923, 5925, 5970, 6039, 6053, 6076, 6094, 6095, 6096, 6099,

German (continued)

       6173, 6174, 6175, 6176, 6177, 6178, 6179, 6197, 6307, 6309, 6373, 6385, 6386, 6393, 6396, 6401, 6449, 6491, 6492, 6498, 6521, 6522, 6523, 6524, 6595, 6596, 6600, 6608, 6613, 6621, 6622, 6636, 6640

German (Pennsylvania) 2671, 4900

Germanic Languages (see too West Germanic Languages) 19, 1204, 1242, 1600, 1604, 1605, 1699, 1969, 2078, 2079, 2081, 2211, 2609, 3170, 3262, 3588, 3963, 4191, 4198, 4200, 4731, 4878, 4879, 4946, 5044, 5232, 5410, 5411, 5428, 6008, 6097

Ghanaian Pidgin English 2660

Giha 699

Gothic (see too Gothic, Crimea below) 540, 1082, 1500, 2351, 3065, 3170, 3188, 3189, 3313, 3588, 3629, 3630, 3631, 4086, 4729, 4879, 4946, 5120, 5239, 5254, 5257, 5258, 5742, 6041, 6161, 6392, 6393, 6394, 6416, 6554

Gothic (Crimea) (see too Gothic above) 3879

Greek (see too Byzantine Greek, Middle Greek, Modern Greek and varieties listed below) 1, 67, 68, 102, 179, 205, 207, 271, 280, 287, 288, 289, 290, 293, 294, 313, 336, 365, 370, 386, 406, 459, 500, 524, 530, 544, 545, 704, 786, 802, 803, 814, 815, 819, 838, 841, 849, 868, 877, 881, 915, 958, 965, 966, 967, 1062, 1082, 1084, 1141, 1152, 1185, 1186, 1208, 1339, 1340, 1391, 1457, 1475, 1476, 1477, 1481, 1505, 1506, 1537, 1543, 1549, 1557, 1572, 1573, 1616, 1689, 1699, 1700, 1701, 1702, 1748, 1754, 1755, 1880, 1935, 1936, 1941, 1959, 1997, 2010, 2047, 2062, 2070, 2071, 2142, 2143, 2185, 2204, 2210, 2255, 2287, 2302, 2313, 2355, 2375, 2376, 2377, 2379, 2380, 2381, 2382, 2383, 2395, 2409, 2410, 2476, 2488, 2507, 2518, 2520, 2605, 2610, 2623, 2640, 2648, 2677, 2678, 2682, 2685, 2727, 2735, 2775, 2781, 2911, 2936, 3011, 3047, 3059, 3060, 3117, 3127, 3139, 3185, 3247, 3256, 3299, 3300, 3302, 3323, 3365, 3440, 3451, 3452, 3530, 3544, 3545, 3546, 3547, 3558, 3580, 3605, 3676, 3677, 3680, 3738, 3740, 3759, 3858, 3859, 3933, 3934, 3935, 3936, 3937, 3938, 3939, 3940, 3941, 3942, 3943, 3944, 3969, 3970, 3986, 3987, 3988, 3989, 4003, 4010, 4066, 4078, 4096, 4202, 4210, 4246, 4356, 4362, 4363, 4367, 4430, 4436, 4440, 4466, 4467, 4485, 4487, 4499, 4538, 4539, 4552, 4566, 4618, 4631, 4635, 4685, 4705, 4706, 4738, 4749, 4750, 4751, 4783, 4784, 4787, 4798, 4807, 4808, 4901, 4944, 4958, 4969, 4984, 4985, 4986, 4987, 4988, 4989, 4990, 4992, 4993, 5013, 5017, 5019, 5025, 5043, 5053, 5057, 5080, 5090, 5091, 5092, 5093, 5094, 5098, 5099, 5101, 5153, 5233, 5246, 5280, 5294, 5362, 5364, 5365, 5375, 5399, 5400, 5453, 5465, 5466, 5467, 5468, 5469, 5488, 5489, 5490, 5510, 5524, 5604, 5605, 5640, 5648, 5729, 5730, 5731, 5787, 5805, 5818,


Greek (continued)

       5819, 5901, 5948, 5950, 5955, 6090, 6275, 6291, 6305, 6333, 6334, 6391, 6393, 6394, 6395, 6456

Greek (Tsakonian Modern) 2400

Gronings 3953, 6116

Guadeloupe Creole 2424, 2425

Guaraní 368, 2171, 5052

Gudezmo 687

Guinea-Bissau Creole (Bissau-Bolama) 5726, 5914, 5917

Guinea-Casamance Portuguese Creole 4606

Gujarati 4112

Gullah 4065, 4219

Gurdu 2386

Gusii 6430

Guyanese Creole 1617, 2064, 2065, 2785, 4215, 4217, 5178, 5290, 5470

Haida 1587, 1588, 1690

Haitian Creole 437, 1262, 1263, 1264, 1265, 1335, 1574, 1861, 2314, 3408, 3465, 3497, 3498, 3499, 3500, 3694, 5623, 5624, 5625, 5626, 6484

Halia 110

Hamitic Languages (Chad) 2918

Haruai 1104

Hausa 419, 840, 906, 907, 908, 1291, 2164, 2453, 2919, 2920, 4135, 4357, 4683, 5341, 6493

Hawaiian 1296, 5437

Hawaiian Creole 3352

Haya (see OruHaya)

Hebrew (see Biblical Hebrew, Middle Hebrew, Mishnaic Hebrew, Modern Hebrew)

Hiligaynon 6569

Hindi-Urdu 25, 119, 275, 850, 957, 1327, 2289, 2351, 2616, 2617, 2618, 2619, 2620, 3358, 4165, 4166, 4168, 4352, 4746, 4747, 5499, 5500, 5501, 6141

Hittite 231, 405, 604, 1533, 6084

Hixkaryana 1422

Hmong (Miao) 3569

Hopi 269, 878, 3761, 6431, 6432

Hu-Limba 462

Hungarian 48, 70, 243, 298, 442, 1162, 1192, 1193, 1194, 1230, 1246, 1306, 1307, 1309, 1327, 1691, 1759, 1860, 2509, 2633, 2837, 3006, 3048, 3049, 3050, 3051, 3052, 3053, 3144, 3285, 3675, 3831, 3956, 4559, 4560, 4645, 4647, 4697, 5386, 5597, 5649, 5814, 5921, 6331

Hupa 4435

Haya (see OroHaya)

Iau 367

Ibibio 1719, 1720

Icelandic 645, 2208, 2351, 2364, 4844, 4845, 5921, 5924

Igbo 1335, 1656, 4473, 4493

Ijo 866

Ilocano 4909

Inca 3559

Indic Languages 979, 2400, 2619, 4353, 5015

Indo-Aryan Languages 8, 2620, 3863, 5499

Indo-European Languages (see too Proto-Indo-European) 133, 231, 438, 797, 798, 1244, 1245, 1393, 1700, 1722, 2009, 2480, 2519, 2749, 2913, 2985, 3031, 3042, 3080, 3314, 3889, 3963, 4757, 4770, 5109, 5292, 5296, 5298, 5299, 5427, 5454, 5457, 5598, 5743, 5752, 5753, 5820, 5926, 5934, 6611, 6612

Indo-Iranian Languages 1537, 1997, 2849, 4167

Indo-Pacific Languages 1297, 2479

Indonesian 2702, 3921, 4841, 4842, 6540

Indonesian Languages (see West Indonesian Languages)

Ingus 2246

Interior Salish Languages 3280

Inuktitut 1309, 2944, 4406

Irish Gaelic (see too Middle Irish, Modern Irish, Old Irish) 2109

Irish Gaelic, Early  4744

Iroquoian Languages (see Northern Iroquoian Languages)

Isekiri 4490

Isle-de-France Creole 1134, 6342

Italian (see too Old Italian) 76, 139, 191, 399, 458, 460, 461, 472, 473, 475, 478, 479, 480, 484, 485, 489, 490, 493, 495, 572, 644, 647, 650, 651, 669, 684, 749, 750, 777, 794, 795, 844, 845, 926, 927, 928, 929, 950, 951, 1223, 1409, 1443, 1459, 1470, 1759, 1839, 1893, 1900, 2025, 2076, 2077, 2080, 2081, 2082, 2083, 2087, 2219, 2340, 2341, 2342, 2482, 2483, 2645, 2765, 2980, 2996, 3242, 3243, 3252, 3427, 3428, 3429, 3439, 3533, 3636, 3638, 3775, 3816, 3817, 3819, 3820, 3918, 3999, 4001, 4059, 4060, 4157, 4634, 4703, 4807, 5124, 5131, 5176, 5224, 5231, 5608, 5609, 5713, 5763, 5921, 5924, 6062, 6157, 6292, 6293, 6436, 6437, 6634

Italian Sign Language 4710

Ixil 250, 3535

Jakalteko 4613

Jamaican 1015, 2065, 4111, 4215, 4217, 4600, 4736


Japanese (see too Japanese, Okinawan below and Middle Japanese, Old Japanese) 178, 194, 249, 484, 719, 1194, 1218, 1548, 1589, 2132, 2304, 2350, 2364, 2392, 2421, 2422, 2546, 2547, 2703, 2769, 2770, 2771, 2772, 2773, 2774, 2884, 2909, 2910, 3002, 3058, 3064, 3072, 3086, 3089, 3324, 3325, 3326, 3330, 3344, 3347, 3410, 3488, 3574, 3746, 3748, 3749, 3750, 3865, 3893, 3916, 3917, 3918, 3932, 4109, 4173, 4257, 4258, 4259, 4262, 4263, 4275, 4280, 4281, 4282, 4354, 4447, 4449, 4450, 4458, 4459, 4460, 4461, 4472, 4506, 4507, 5064, 5140, 5172, 5377, 5426, 5434, 5436, 5439, 5443, 5444, 5446, 5447, 5448, 5450, 5451, 5582, 5583, 5584, 5765, 5781, 5811, 5816, 5817, 5833, 5834, 5835, 5836, 5888, 5889, 5890, 6059, 6370, 6371, 6540, 6548, 6556, 6557

Japanese (Okinawan) (see too Japanese, above) 5433, 5434

Jaqi Languages 1835

Jawony 4004

Jenu-Kurumba 6638

Jinghpaw 3774

Juba Arabic Pidgin 6014

Jukun Languages (Benue-Congo) 5728

Kabyle (Berber) 4024

Kaiwa 5854

Kalasha 361

Kalinga (Limos) 6442

Kalinga (Upper Tanudan) 716, 2067

Kalmuck 564

Kalmyk 1602

Kammu 449, 5783, 5785

Kanauri 5229

Kannada 125, 2400

Kanuri 2834

Kartvelian Languages 3723, 5296

Kasim 654

Kazakh 3436, 5767

Kewa (Kewapi) 6535

Khalkha Mongolian 530, 532, 5784, 6516

Khowar 361

Kikerebe 695

Kikongo-Kituba 4218

Kiksht 2692

Kikuyu 2881, 2882, 2883

Kiliwa 4110

Kimaragang Dusun 3282

Kinyarwanda 693, 694, 695, 696, 699, 702, 2098, 2718, 5429

Kipchak 2874

Kirghiz 4497, 6068

Kirundi 699

Kiswahili 697, 1118, 1119, 1120, 1121, 1540, 2684, 4155, 4183, 5235, 6346

KiVunjo-Chaga 4196, 4197

Kizeela 5089

Kogi 2346

Kokuyon 1866

Kola Lapp (Kola-Sami) 5812, 5813

Komi (Zyrian) 5416

Konkani 6361

Korean 75, 272, 963, 1011, 1548, 2268, 2343, 2674, 2688, 2689, 3063, 3064, 3066, 3086, 3125, 3344, 3473, 3474, 3475, 3476, 3482, 3483, 3484, 3485, 3487, 3490, 3493, 3576, 4256, 4468, 4537, 4571, 4572, 4574, 5432, 5448, 5586, 5587, 5603, 5766, 6551, 6552, 6553

Koyukon Athabaskan 248

Kraho 368

Kriol (Northern Australia) 2169

Kriyol 3056

Kru languages 1054, 1335, 3776, 3777, 5504, 5505

Kuchean (Tocharian) 3244, 3385, 5933

Kumyk 1972, 1973

Kusaiean 3486, 3487

Ladino 687

Lake Miwok 878, 880, 1917, 1921, 1923

Lakota 4634

Late Egyptian (see too Ancient Egyptian) 6473

Latin 243, 268, 298, 299, 316, 320, 562, 563, 610, 611, 731, 814, 833, 921, 922, 1082, 1083, 1208, 1251, 1457, 1498, 1533, 1645, 1651, 1699, 1703, 1830, 1958, 1959, 1978, 2008, 2013, 2076, 2077, 2081, 2156, 2187, 2255, 2301, 2313, 2339, 2372, 2382, 2513, 2531, 2532, 2690, 2800, 2846, 2847, 3014, 3015, 3025, 3041, 3117, 3139, 3245, 3246, 3323, 3362, 3430, 3439, 3440, 3442, 3695, 3783, 3891, 3892, 3976, 3977, 3978, 3980, 3982, 4026, 4036, 4078, 4149, 4172, 4180, 4405, 4415, 4420, 4463, 4567, 4639, 4649, 4688, 4689, 4690, 4691, 4692, 4748, 4779, 4787, 4807, 4808, 4922, 4946, 5047, 5048, 5056, 5058, 5086, 5102, 5103, 5135, 5387, 5388, 5389, 5476, 5564, 5754, 5805, 5822, 5841, 5891, 5927, 5984, 6010, 6011, 6012, 6018, 6021, 6024, 6042, 6090, 6166, 6182, 6199, 6225, 6318, 6391, 6392, 6481, 6505

Latvian 1611, 2995, 3647, 3861, 3862, 4523, 5642, 5643, 5644

Lega 692

Lezgian 2396, 2397, 2400, 3029, 5921

Limbu 6124

Limon Creole 2505, 2506

Limouzi 2839

Lingala 2452, 2718, 3954, 4214

Lithuanian (see too Old Lithuanian) 296, 297, 825, 1259, 1611, 1989, 1990, 2045, 2168, 2202, 2203, 2209, 2580, 2618, 2793, 2995, 3109, 3751, 3861, 3862, 3866, 4046, 4047, 4244, 4322, 4925, 5136, 5395, 5396, 5525, 5924, 5968, 6103

Louisiana Creole 5075

Luiseño 5668

Lulubo 132

Macedonian 812, 1803, 1804, 1907, 1910, 1911, 1914, 1918, 1919, 1922, 1924, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 2176, 2416, 2987, 3145, 3228, 3600, 3792, 3793, 4657, 5343, 5588, 5589, 6075, 6201

Madak 3492

Maithili 2917

Makaa 2431, 5928

Malacca Creole Portuguese 5951

Malay (Brunei) 3067

Malayalam 124, 2630, 3930, 4474, 5585, 5782

Maltese 668, 813, 1603, 1733, 5924

Manchu 245, 1007

Mandarin (see too Chinese) 119, 961, 968, 969, 986, 989, 997, 1003, 1020, 1021, 1694, 1695, 1696, 2138, 2230, 2300, 2428, 2651, 2652, 2656, 2657, 2658, 2659, 2968, 3567, 3570, 3571, 3572, 3585, 3614, 3617, 3618, 3619, 3620, 3684, 3736, 3778, 3993, 4503, 4504, 4569, 4852, 4928, 5036, 5037, 5038, 5059, 5357, 5361, 5425, 5552, 5553, 5556, 5619, 5770, 5771, 5945, 6411, 6499, 6534, 6539, 6540, 6607

Mangarayi 4004

Manobo 1551

Manobo (Cotabato) 1708

Mantharta languages 232

Maori 1051, 2072

Marathi 1006, 1060, 1439, 1440, 2056, 2432, 2620, 2917

Margi 1230

Martinique Creole 1262

Mauritanian Creole 1132

Mauritian Creole 65, 284, 62426, 6017, 223, 6224

Maya (see Classical Maya and varieties listed below)

Maya (Itzaj) 2627

Maya (Yucatec) 599, 3229, 4671, 4830, 4871, 5788

Mayan languages 4613, 5012

Mazatec 5331

Melanesian Pidgin 3008

Miao (see Hmong)

Micronesian languages 142, 2920

Middle Chinese 5770

Middle Dutch 1213, 4680

Middle Egyptian 4997, 6222

Middle English 210, 435, 764, 896, 1905, 1906, 2526, 3121, 4465, 4595, 4823, 5067, 6369, 6618

Middle French 1570, 3824, 5329, 5780, 6464, 6519

Middle Greek 3251

Middle Hebrew 4510

Middle High German 317, 1290, 1500, 2481, 3773

Middle Irish 1959, 3948, 4831

Middle Japanese 5308

Middle Mongolian 4520

Middle Persian 5513, 5514

Middle Russian 2272

Middle Watut 3461

Middle Welsh 1749

Mishnaic Hebrew 1821

Miwok languages 879

Mixe (see Totontepec Mixe)

Mixtec 521, 6460

Mocho 3815

Modern Arabic 13, 167, 1211, 1485, 1877

Modern Aramaic 2566

Modern Aramaic (Modern Syriac) 2626, 2903

Modern Eastern Armenian 2400

Modern Greek 104, 105, 292, 337, 558, 1081, 1187, 1503, 1505, 1506, 1536, 2049, 2434, 2435, 2436, 2437, 2589, 2618, 2677, 2695, 2727, 2935, 2990, 3251, 3752, 4082, 4083, 4194, 4361, 4363, 4364, 4365, 4367, 4368, 4414, 4561, 4562, 4563, 4564, 4565, 4659, 4743, 4806, 5118, 5371, 5372, 5690, 5691, 5924, 6057, 6058, 6129, 6186, 6187, 6361, 6531

Modern Hebrew 191, 452, 453, 454, 613, 1963, 2119, 2148, 2400, 2472, 4213, 4825, 5607, 5974, 5975, 5976, 6073

Modern Irish 2179

Modern Persian 2966, 2967, 3445, 4085, 5148

Modern Syriac (see Modern Aramaic)

Mofu-Gudur 2606

Mohawk 282, 283, 653

Mongolian (see too Buriat, Khalkha Mongolian, Middle Mongolian) 272, 531, 2393, 5424, 6054

Mongolian languages 2393, 6086, 6517

Mordvin 343, 855

Munda languages 8

Mundani 4575

Na-Dene languages 1588

Nanai 244

Native American languages 1209, 1413

Navaho 341, 2356, 4049, 5553

Navajo 4050, 4051, 5561, 6461, 6558

Nawdm 2023

Ndonga (Oshindonga) 1826, 1872

Negerhollands 5129, 5130

Newari 3086

Ngalakan 4004

Ngando 5928

Ngbaka 5928, 5928

Niger-Congo languages 2455

Niger-Congo languages (Nigeria) 5711

Nigerian languages (see Southern Nigerian Languages)

Nigerian Pidgin 1326, 1757, 1767, 4444, 4445, 4446

Nilo-Saharan languages 2455

Nimboran 5681

Nivkh 4319

Nømaante 6454

Northeast Turkic languages 134

Northern Iroquoian languages 1867, 1868

Northern Ostyak 5815

Northern Sotho 3174, 3678, 3679, 3682, 6150

Norwegian (see too Danish-Norwegian, Old Norse) 240, 451, 1043, 1468, 1901, 3577, 3589, 3721, 4844, 4845, 5173, 5593, 6081, 6158

Nubi Arabic Creole 6014

Nugunu 4498, 6527

Nunggubuyu 2432

Nyaboa 436

Obolo (Benue Congo) 2

Occitan (Gascon) 2281, 2281, 3801, 5289

Ohrid Arumanian 3792, 3793

Ojibwa 3061, 4945, 5024

Okanagan 3877

Okpe 4490

Oksapmin 3444

Old Arabic 6, 26, 95, 97, 166, 227, 228, 252, 276, 425, 567, 568, 939, 1105, 1212, 1248, 1299, 1646, 1693, 1878, 1879, 2401, 3071, 4009, 4134, 4673, 5042, 5655, 6474

Old Armenian 2748, 5300

Old Babylonian 3537

Old Bulgarian 6394

Old Church Slavonic 540, 541, 542, 679, 680, 717, 787, 829, 994, 1514, 1516, 2027, 2117, 2417, 2682, 2683, 3141, 3317, 3320, 3539, 3811, 4080, 4202, 5239, 5287, 6088, 6143

Old Czech 4300, 5778, 5779

Old Egyptian 2832

Old English 571, 894, 896, 1688, 2217, 2607, 2630, 3065, 3121, 3590, 3591, 3674, 4093, 4378, 4463, 4595, 4644, 4727, 4823, 4848, 4946, 4957, 5256, 6369, 6372, 6393, 6610

Old Finnish 4409

Old French 371, 556, 831, 1303, 1570, 1650, 1828, 1834, 2228, 2711, 3003, 5088, 5171, 5329, 5393, 5780, 6508

Old Frisian 6317

Old Georgian 3768, 5295, 5299

Old High German 1707, 1942, 3188, 3189, 3313, 4508, 4890, 4968, 5255, 6161, 6390, 6391, 6392, 6393

Old Irish 74, 1518, 1818, 2728, 2728, 3169, 4425, 4426, 4427, 4428, 4433, 5921, 6498

Old Italian 76, 122

Old Japanese 3563, 5435

Old Lithuanian 5137

Old Norse 2347

Old Permian 285

Old Persian 2746, 5514

Old Polish 2173

Old Prussian 1721

Old Russian 455, 456, 2117, 2642, 2977, 3032, 3142, 3341, 3650, 3651, 3992, 4299, 4400, 4663, 4797, 5117, 5316, 6143, 6479

Old Saxon 4879

Old Spanish 5165

Old Syriac 5106

Old Tamil 2495

Old Turkic 84

Old Ukrainian 3032

Oneida 9

OruHaya 1258, 5157

Ostyak (see Northern Ostyak)

Oto-Manguean languages 6460

Palenquero 3671, 3884, 3885, 5354

Palikur 1499

Panamanian Creole English (Bastimentos) 45, 46, 1555, 2506, 3287

Panare 2069

Papago 2312

Papamiento 130, 867, 3671, 3883, 3884, 3885, 3886

Papuan languages 5008, 5009

Papuan Pidgin English 4221

Pashto 2618, 6294

Pennsylvania Dutch (see German, Pennsylvania)

Pennsylvania German (see German, Pennsylvania)

Permian, Old (see Old Permian)

Permic 4254

Persian (see too Middle Persian, Modern Persian, Old Persian) 286, 2400, 3446, 6474

Peru) 720, 2545

Philippine Creole Spanish 3610

Phoenician 3225, 3226

Pidgin English (see Cameroon Pidgin English, English-Based Pidgins, Ghanaian Pidgin English, Melanesian Pidgin, Nigerian Pidgin, Papuan Pidgin English, Tok Pisin)

Pidgin languages (see too Juba Arabic Pidgin) 81, 2878, 3191, 3352

Pidgin Sign English 6507

Pidgin Swedish 3190

Pilagá 6266

Pima 1437

Piraha 1727

Polish (see too Old Polish) 71, 234, 356, 538, 539, 586, 587, 589, 594, 601, 972, 1219, 1751, 2029, 2031, 2044, 2156, 2162, 2163, 2174, 2464, 2613, 2614, 2804, 2934, 2980, 2981, 2989, 2999, 3000, 3110, 3111, 3128, 3129, 3178, 3186, 3212, 3213, 3250, 3252, 3511, 3604, 3605, 3606, 3746, 3765, 3882, 3998, 4062, 4064, 4079, 4100, 4422, 4596, 4632, 4664, 4694, 4695, 4799, 4801, 5396, 5414, 5512, 5578, 5746, 5747, 5791, 5810, 5924, 5990, 6136, 6404, 6405, 6441, 6444, 6449, 6589, 6623

Polynesian languages 3288

Pomo, Central (see Central Pomo)

Ponapean 3486

Portuguese (see too Brazilian Portuguese) 72, 120, 338, 368, 603, 884, 919, 920, 1109, 1138, 1198, 1278, 1531, 1805, 1807, 1839, 1852, 1853, 1950, 2081, 2704, 3078, 3115, 3610, 3658, 3662, 3663, 4169, 4187, 4208, 4479, 4480, 4536, 5181, 5185, 5186, 5188, 5189, 5190, 5191, 5685, 5687, 5854, 5921, 5924, 5973, 6032, 6184, 6318

Portuguese-based creoles 1060, 2180, 2344, 3611, 5724, 5726, 5914

Prakrit 3156

Principense 3887

Proto-Indo-European 269, 2009, 5454

Proto-Rutara 4248

Proto-South-Caucasian 5300

Provençal 914, 1280, 3390, 3403

Prussian, Old (see Old Prussian)

Punjabi 295

Q’anjob’al 4613

Q’eqchi’ (Kekchi) 1338

Quechua (see too varieties listed below) 59, 60, 301, 846, 1713, 1752, 2068, 2171, 2649, 3091, 3092, 3762, 6384

Quechua (Argentina) 2172

Quechua (Callejon de Huaylas ) 4072

Quechua (Conchucos) 5702

Quechua (Corongo) 2545

Quechua (Ecuador) 4385

Quechua (Equatorial Pastaza) 1765

Quechua (Pastaza 720

Quechua (Wanka) 1843

Rajasthani 2621

Réunionnais Creole 342, 876 1133

Romance languages 136, 268, 491, 833, 960, 1017, 1144, 1145, 1223, 1275, 1276, 1279, 1458, 1495, 1647, 1829, 1830, 1832, 1978, 2028, 2078, 2079, 2081, 2282, 2373, 2374, 2937, 2979, 3095, 3355, 3393, 3634, 4536, 4626, 4649, 4808, 4946, 5200, 5224, 5352, 5410, 5636, 5637, 5984, 6163, 6278, 6423

Romani (Vlach) 3863

Romanian 239, 240, 242, 243, 755, 2175, 2223, 2284, 3439, 4090, 4137, 4301, 4840, 5127, 5386, 5717, 5718, 5719, 5720, 5864

Romansh 1607

Ruanda (see Kinyarwanda)

Rumanian 2323, 5924

Russenorsk 3190


Russian (see too Middle Russian, Old Russian) 10, 70, 73, 86, 87, 88, 150, 153, 168, 236, 237, 238, 246, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 354, 355, 356, 373, 409, 410, 411, 418, 434, 449, 512, 537, 538, 539, 578, 579, 580, 581, 582, 588, 590, 591, 592, 595, 600, 602, 622, 623, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 630, 631, 632, 633, 634, 635, 638, 640, 643, 682, 683, 709, 724, 727, 728, 729, 730, 731, 747, 799, 827, 864, 868, 920, 971, 990, 991, 993, 995, 1008, 1023, 1027, 1029, 1034, 1035, 1043, 1148, 1149, 1194, 1195, 1197, 1249, 1253, 1319, 1406, 1423, 1424, 1467, 1468, 1491, 1576, 1579, 1581, 1582, 1609, 1610, 1781, 1784, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1796, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1814, 1827, 1840, 1849, 1855, 1858, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1878, 1896, 1918, 1989, 1990, 2000, 2018, 2019, 2021, 2022, 2025, 2031, 2037, 2051, 2085, 2088, 2119, 2130, 2131, 2133, 2147, 2167, 2183, 2184, 2191, 2192, 2193, 2219, 2260, 2261, 2262, 2265, 2266, 2274, 2275, 2277, 2320, 2321, 2322, 2332, 2333, 2334, 2335, 2404, 2464, 2535, 2569, 2572, 2574, 2577, 2590, 2591, 2592, 2611, 2618, 2630, 2693, 2698, 2729, 2730, 2731, 2733, 2739, 2745, 2747, 2753, 2786, 2787, 2788, 2789, 2790, 2791, 2802, 2806, 2836, 2848, 2859, 2863, 2941, 2974, 2975, 2976, 2978, 2980, 2982, 2997, 2998, 3006, 3043, 3096, 3103, 3122, 3130, 3135, 3136, 3192, 3216, 3217, 3219, 3220, 3243, 3253, 3294, 3306, 3307, 3316, 3340, 3357, 3427, 3428, 3429, 3456, 3463, 3505, 3506, 3508, 3509, 3512, 3517, 3518, 3519, 3536, 3538, 3562, 3702, 3704, 3705, 3706, 3708, 3751, 3765, 3766, 3832, 3834, 3844, 3845, 3850, 3853, 3900, 3902, 3903, 3957, 3958, 3959, 3960, 3967, 3985, 3992, 3998, 4007, 4008, 4032, 4044, 4069, 4070, 4071, 4076, 4077, 4089, 4091, 4138, 4152, 4182, 4195, 4211, 4212, 4222, 4226, 4232, 4234, 4243, 4244, 4288, 4305, 4311, 4319, 4327, 4355, 4375, 4376, 4403, 4443, 4522, 4524, 4525, 4526, 4527, 4528, 4529, 4530, 4531, 4532, 4533, 4534, 4553, 4557, 4558, 4614, 4619, 4625, 4646, 4647, 4658, 4660, 4661, 4662, 4664, 4665, 4667, 4681, 4704, 4728, 4737, 4759, 4760, 4761, 4762, 4763, 4780, 4781, 4782, 4800, 4803, 4804, 4805, 4822, 4850, 4868, 4869, 4870, 4871, 4872, 4926, 4940, 5021, 5077, 5104, 5111, 5113, 5114, 5116, 5121, 5125, 5131, 5138, 5144, 5145, 5155, 5277, 5285, 5307, 5318, 5342, 5349, 5352, 5379, 5381, 5382, 5383, 5386, 5419, 5420, 5421, 5430, 5455, 5456, 5461, 5475, 5480, 5483, 5553, 5591, 5592, 5618, 5630, 5634, 5638, 5649, 5688, 5712, 5755, 5759, 5760, 5761, 5762, 5786, 5788, 5789, 5790, 5800, 5812, 5848, 5892, 5902, 5903, 5904, 5907, 5921, 5963, 5965, 5966, 5967, 5969, 5971, 5994, 5995, 5996, 5997, 6000, 6003, 6019, 6025, 6046, 6047, 6048, 6050, 6051, 6052, 6055, 6067, 6083, 6091, 6092, 6124, 6130, 6131, 6136, 6155, 6168, 6194, 6201, 6216, 6264, 6295, 6301, 6319, 6320, 6321, 6362, 6441, 6471, 6474, 6480, 6482, 6483, 6500, 6501, 6518,

             
Russian (continued)

       6529, 6533, 6549, 6550, 6583, 6588, 6589, 6594, 6597, 6604, 6625, 6626

Rutara (see Proto-Rutara)

Sirisana 100

Salish (see too St’át’imcets) 1293

Salishan languages (see too Interior Salish Languages) 2433, 3079, 4358

Samana English 5828

Samoan 4075

Sango 1462, 5161

Sanskrit 313, 892, 1537, 1835, 2348, 3004, 3143, 3156, 3453, 4914, 5054, 5670, 5764, 5964

Sanskrit (Vedic) 817, 1648, 1649, 2136, 2799, 2862, 3081, 4936, 5109, 5956, 6202

São Tome and Principe 5914

São Tome Creole 5916

Saramaccan 865, 866, 867

Saxon, Old (see Old Saxon)

Scandinavian languages 1234, 2411, 4956

Scottish Gaelic 64, 2109, 3528, 4857, 4858 6498

Sechelt 403

Sekani Beaver 2358

Selkup 614

Semitic languages 773, 1073, 1077, 2723, 2734, 2831, 2832, 2913, 3319, 3322, 3667, 4231, 4434, 4836, 5108, 5109, 5368, 5899, 5900, 6043, 6070

Sentani 2385

Serbo-Croatian 422, 596, 618, 682, 750, 1069, 1070, 1122, 1123, 1260, 1382, 1447, 2128, 2198, 2199, 2221, 2222, 2276, 2475, 2563, 2755, 2756, 2757, 2912, 2922, 2987, 3182, 4053, 4063, 4100, 4178, 4179, 4443, 4788, 4967, 5046, 5115, 5163, 5519, 5676, 5677, 5700, 5722, 5924, 5929, 5930, 5931, 5932, 6144, 6201, 6328

Sesotho 119, 3730, 6421

Seychellois Creole 1133, 1379, 4042

Shambala 501

Sherpa 6503, 6504

Shoshoni (see Comanche)

Siar 1697

Sicilian 1606

Sign language (see American Sign Language, Argentinian Sign Language, British Sign Language, Italian Sign Language, Pidgin Sign English, Swedish Sign Language)

Singhalese 2494

Slavic languages (see too Balkan Slavic Languages, East Slavic Languages, West Slavic Languages) 174, 298, 353, 620, 621, 748, 810, 812, 924, 925, 970, 979, 992, 1030, 1031, 1032, 1100, 1214, 1230, 1380, 1445, 1446, 1494, 1513, 1515, 1517, 1577, 1699, 1854, 1978, 1988, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2028, 2032, 2502, 2615, 2723, 2741, 2750, 2759, 2924, 2930, 2979, 2985, 3084, 3122, 3140, 3175, 3177, 3180, 3181, 3183, 3185, 3219, 3221, 3224, 3295, 3330, 3462, 3507, 3510, 3583, 3588, 3703, 3707, 3729, 3755, 3767, 3780, 3839, 3840, 3841, 3842, 3847, 3848, 3849, 3852, 3901, 4005, 4078, 4084, 4153, 4159, 4297, 4298, 4408, 4526, 4539, 4599, 4610, 4625, 4905, 5066, 5124, 5133, 5249, 5288, 5350, 5351, 5369, 5482, 5518, 5610, 5646, 5902, 5906, 5908, 5909, 6002, 6026, 6087, 6206, 6265, 6300, 6302, 6401, 6422, 6485, 6487, 6582, 6632

Slovak (see too Czechoslovakian) 1778, 2731, 4061, 4391, 4603, 6623

Slovenian 792, 1423, 1999, 2276, 3789, 4059, 5226, 5250, 5924, 6574

Sogdian 4602

Sorbian (see too Upper Sorbian) 5924

Sotho (see Northern Sotho)

South Caucasian languages (see too Proto-South-Caucasian) 5297, 5457

South Dravidian languages 2494

South Slavic languages 421, 1563, 3601, 3602

Southern Binja 4224

Southern Interior Salish 3279

Southern Nigerian languages 1326

Southern Turkic languages 2004, 2227, 2264

Spanish (see too Old Spanish and varieties listed below) 44, 98, 273, 330, 332, 333, 335, 387, 388, 389, 390, 416, 463, 464, 493, 559, 560, 574, 575, 576, 646, 664, 665, 686, 821, 822, 823, 832, 846, 847, 891, 904, 916, 917, 976, 998, 1036, 1041, 1042, 1059, 1089, 1273, 1274, 1292, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1316, 1317, 1407, 1459, 1463, 1490, 1511, 1518, 1519, 1559, 1591, 1592, 1625, 1713, 1717, 1718, 1761, 1779, 1788, 1835, 1848, 1891, 2001, 2007, 2017, 2047, 2060, 2073, 2081, 2119, 2135, 2139, 2140, 2172, 2263, 2269, 2415, 2419, 2441, 2490, 2680, 2737, 3020, 3021, 3077, 3078, 3087, 3091, 3092, 3108, 3231, 3337, 3368, 3439, 3441, 3450, 3531, 3532, 3652, 3660, 3664, 3665, 3683, 3693, 3715, 3732, 3733, 3756, 3770, 3775, 3788, 3789, 3812, 3813, 3830, 3964, 4088, 4171, 4172, 4205, 4207, 4287, 4385, 4386, 4517, 4521, 4570, 4576, 4624, 4627, 4629, 4630, 4632, 4772, 4828, 4829, 4851, 4864, 4939, 4942, 4970, 4971, 5014, 5022, 5026, 5039, 5040, 5045, 5055, 5097, 5112, 5141, 5142, 5146, 5147, 5167, 5192, 5193, 5195, 5221, 5233, 5491, 5492, 5521, 5527, 5595, 5621, 5737, 5741, 5751, 5756, 5757, 5775, 5776, 5821, 5838, 5893, 5921, 5924, 5981,


Spanish (continued)

       6071, 6151, 6162, 6164, 6181, 6183, 6185, 6274, 6279, 6316, 6418, 6420, 6423, 6471, 6512, 6576, 6577, 6579

Spanish (American) 2171, 3731, 6419, 6578

Spanish (Argentina) 3290

Spanish (Canary Islands) 5394

Spanish (Caribbean) 342, 2578, 3661, 5493

Spanish (Central America) 3134

Spanish (Chile) 5493

Spanish (Colombia) 464

Spanish (Mexico 3134, 3659, 3661, 5359

Spanish (Puerto Rico) 4181

Spanish (Southwest U.S.) 1842, 2270

Spanish-Based Creoles 2180, 2833, 3611

Spokane 897

Sranan 5179, 5397, 5398, 6312

St’át’imcets (Lillooet Salish) 1403, 1404

Sudanic, Central (see Central Sudanic)

Sumerian 6555

Sundanese 6415

Sunwar 1387

Svansk (Kartvelian) 5457, 5769, 6061

Swahili (Kenya) 6347

Swahili (Lubumbashi) 5260

Swedish 61, 149, 151, 152, 157, 982, 983, 1014, 1241, 1246, 1448, 1450, 1556, 1686, 2031, 2118, 2876, 3191, 3213, 3604, 3605, 4636, 4666, 4713, 4714, 4715, 4716, 5118, 5291, 5972, 6009, 6436, 6437

Swedish (Finland) 2310

Swedish Sign Language 448, 449

Swiss German 513, 1246, 4223

Syriac, Modern (see Modern Aramaic)

Syriac, Old (see Old Syriac)

Tagalog 930, 1395, 1980, 3282, 4294, 4295, 4771, 4861, 4909, 6510, 6569

Tahitian 3787

Tamang 3899

Tamil (see too Old Tamil and the variety listed below) 163, 164, 165, 169, 1257, 1773, 2106, 2492, 2493, 2494, 2495, 4253, 4843, 5261, 5262, 5406, 5670, 5671, 5672, 6637

Tamil (Hemmige) 525

Tarma 60

Tartar 3045

Tatar 134, 1772, 5847

Tatar (Dobruja) 2805

Tayo 1626, 3057

Teda 2834

Telugu 2528, 4838, 4853, 5143, 5406, 5407, 6268

Tezoatlan 6460

Thai 3132, 4392, 5301, 5361, 5606, 6498

Tibetan 361, 1384, 1385, 1388, 5228, 5418, 5478

Tibeto-Burman languages 5229

Tikar 2764

Tiktoo 123

Toba 3098, 6266

Toba Batak 4185, 6510

Tobagonian Creole 6561, 6563

Tocharian (see Kuchean)

Toishan 3578

Tok Pisin 80, 5041, 5179, 5180, 5689

Tokelauan 2624, 6311

Tonga (Zambia) 4429

Toposa 5334

Totonac 543

Totontepec Mixe 5310

Touareg 3779

Trinidadian Creole 6475, 6477, 6560

Tsez 1110

Tsou 6592

Tsova-Tush (Batsi) 2599

Tswana 3286

Tuareg 3503

Tulu 6082

Tumbuka 698

Tunumiisut 3994, 3995

Tupi (Guarayu) 4366

Turkic languages (see too Northeast Turkic Languages, Old Turkic,Southern Turkic Languages, West Oghuz Turkic)  47, 362, 820, 1973, 2005, 2226, 2866, 2872, 3154, 3155, 3165, 3339, 4286, 5391, 5507, 5825, 6584

Turkish 91, 92, 93, 361, 363, 364, 366, 398, 441, 736, 811, 1486, 1665, 1772, 1804, 1913, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 2184, 2400, 2752, 2865, 2869, 2870, 2871, 3035, 3036, 3180, 3315, 3338, 3624, 3625, 5222, 5392, 5435, 5528, 5655, 5921, 6374, 6474, 6536, 6537, 6538

Turkmen 444

Tuyuca 328, 3758

Tzeltalan languages 5011, 5011

Tzotzil 5011

Udmurt 2400

Uighur 2698

Ukrainian (see too Old Ukrainian) 234, 509, 617, 1004, 1438, 2119, 2939, 3182, 3276, 5121

Uma-Aria 2190

Unguja 4416

Upper Sorbian 6005, 6006

Uralic languages 2448, 4897, 4898

Urdu (see Hindi-Urdu)

Uto-Aztecan languages 5665, 5666

Uvwie 4490

Uzbek 2698, 2940, 3436, 4284, 4285, 4305, 4938, 6614, 6615

Vedic (see Sanskrit, Vedic)

Veinakh languages 2715

Venda 6421

Vietnamese 1566, 4037, 4551, 5960

Virgin Islands English Creole 5128

Wambaya 4395, 4396, 4397

Waorani 6472

Warlpiri 2181

Warrungu 6060

Watut (see Middle Watut)

Welsh (see too Middle Welsh) 247, 1090, 2400, 2459, 2466, 2728, 2797, 2895, 2896, 2897, 2898, 4745, 5082

Weskos 5979

West Chadic languages 6493

West Germanic languages 3549

West Indonesian languages 6351

West Oghuz Turkic 2868

West Slavic languages 1563, 3215, 5778, 5779

Wintu 1835

Wolof 5006

Yagua 4605

Yakut 973

Yasa 688

Yiddish 215, 393, 1453, 1750, 1751, 2119, 2120, 3054, 3786, 4288, 5234, 5682, 5823, 5849, 5921, 6401, 6422

Yoruba 62, 63, 192, 5505, 5599

Yoruba (Isekiri) 4491

Yoruna 1335

Yuman languages 4097

Yup’ik 4099, 5380, 6093

Yup’ik (Central Alaska) 5575

Zaiwa 3701

Zapotec 3479

Zapotec (Isthmus) 4676

Zapotec (Oaxaca) 3480

Zulu 506, 507, 2564, 3034, 3682, 4177, 4765, 5520, 5855, 6421

Zulu (Nguni) 2469, 4766, 4767, 4768

Zyrian (see Komi)


Topical Index

 

Entries for literary works such as “The Waves” are in double quotes and alphabetized by the first word, even if an article; entries for concepts such as ‘already’ are in single quotes, and follow the double-quote entries.  Languages with prefixes such as “Old, Middle, Modern, Southern,” etc., are generally alphabetized under the prefix; thus “Modern Greek” follows “Marathi.”

 


3-dimensional tense logic 4351

“A relíquia” 919

“Abhisamayalankara” 4914

“Agesilaus” 819

“Arxerej” 2848

“Au château d’Argol” 4389

“Benedictine Rule” 6391

“Beowulf” 3674, 4957

“Chanson de Roland” 2228, 2407, 5088

“Childhood” 86

“Clair de femme” 1430

“De Val” 1256

“Each Had Six Wings” 4213

“Een willekeurig Koersweekeinde” 3157

“Eghts aghandots’” 5405

“Ferguut” 2817

“Governour” 4604

“Great Expectations” 783

“Hellenica” 819

“Histoire du Seigneur de Bayart” 5330

“Isidor” 1707

“L’Amour fou” 4612

“L’Éducation sentimentale” 1430

“L’Étranger” 333

“La Conquête de Constantinople” 1828

“La Familia de Pascal Duarte” 333

“La Regenta” 574

“Laurentine Chronicle” 2863

“Lives of Saints” 6372

“Maigret et l’affaire Nahour” 1430

“Morte Darthur” 4604

“Nestorchronik” 5117

“New Testament” 280, 370, 786, 841, 1549, 1754, 1755, 1880, 2410, 3059, 3060, 3858, 3937, 3939, 3943, 3944, 4210, 4356, 4430, 4705, 4750, 5488, 5948, 6395

“Ninth Epode” 6481

“Novgorod Birch Bark Letters” 4400

“Old Testament” 4373

“Poema de mio Cid” 2073, 3087

“Povest’ vremennyx let” 2117

“Romancero” 4088

“Shih-san Ching” 5777

“Skuchnaja istorija” 2848

“The Bronze Horseman” 6131

“The Brothers Karamazov” 2975

“The Corpus Christi MS.” 5256

“The Gospels” 4463

“The Inscription of Abnun” 5513

“The Letter of Jude” 4901

“The Origins” 6024

“The Psalter” 4463

“The Story of Beykhaki” 5148

“The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” 1029

“The Waves” 6388

“Therapy” 315

“Un Coeur simple” 546

“Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo” 5593

“Zograf codex” 994

‘already’ 235, 4596

          in Swahili 5235

‘be’ 6278

‘category switch’ problem 4582

‘déjà’ 6098

‘et (Biblical Hebrew) 2016

‘event-argument homomorphism’ model 6389

‘ever’ 3549

‘ghosting’ rule 4977

‘have’ 6278

‘magis’ (Romance languages) 1276

‘nicht mehr’ (in Swahili) 5235

‘no more’ (in Swahili) 5235

‘noch’ (in Swahili) 5235

‘now’ (in Basque) 4982

‘nunc’ (in Basque) 4982

‘plus’ (Romance languages) 1276

‘say’ 700

‘schon’ (in Swahili) 5235

‘selection theories’ of aspect 517

‘still’ 235, 4596

          in Swahili 5235

‘then’ 2104, 6369

‘today’ (in Dravidian) 4854

‘tomorrow’ (in Dravidian) 4854

‘when’ 4463, 6369

‘while’ 4463

‘will’

          in French 3818

          in Polish 2174

‘yesterday’ (in Dravidian) 4854

‘yet’ 4596

-(e)ss (Korean) 6551

-(nu)n (Korean) 6551

-(r)are- (Japanese) 3089

-anu (Russian) 4803

-bá (Kinyarwanda) 696

-be/-ba (Zulu) 4765

-dus (Latin) 3442

-e issta (Korean) 3086

-ed (English) 4258, 4481

-en (English) 1160

-ess (Korean) 6551, 6552

-ess-ess (Korean) 3064

-ever (English) 3472

-fi (Manchu) 1007

-il (Korean) 4256

-ing (English) 1254, 1569, 1698, 3287, 3332, 3971, 3973, 4481, 4756, 4808, 5049, 5473, 5616

-iva/-yva (Russian) 4553, 5021

-ka- (Bantu) 701

-kacha(a) (Quechua) 4072

-ko (Apalai) 3131

-ko issta (Korean) 3086

-kyess (Korean) 6551

-l (Russian) 4759

-misµ (Turkic languages) 736, 2227

-misµ (Turkish) 3625

-mysh (Azerbaijani) 4687

-nai (Japanese) 2772

-nuh (Comanche) 3945

-nun (Korean) 6552

-oss- (Korean) 3485

-paij (Arop) 4424

-ra (Spanish) 3108, 3756, 4207, 6512

-re (Spanish) 2135

-ria (Spanish) 2047

-ru (Japanese) 4275, 4354

-sa- (Northern Sotho) 3679

-sho (Zulu) 4177

-site iru (Japanese) 5377

-sk (Hittite) 405

-skI (Conchucos Quechua) 5702

-ta (Japanese) 4109, 4258, 4275, 4354, 5889

-ta koto ga aru (Japanese) 2719, 3064

-te (Japanese) 5064

-te (Korean) 4574, 5586

-te aru (Japanese) 2350, 2392, 3058


-te iru (Japanese) 2350, 2719, 2774, 3058, 3086, 3917, 4280, 4281, 4458, 4460, 5064, 5436, 5443, 5444, 5450

-ter (Malay) 5585

-thi (Zulu) 4177

-ti (Tumbuka) 698

-to omotte iru (Japanese) 6548

-to omou (Japanese) 6548

-u (Japanese) 4109

-un il i iss (Korean) 3064

-ung (German) 5431

-va (Tumbuka) 698

-yb (Azerbaijani) 4687

-ykacha(a) (Quechua) 4072

a (Caribbean English Creole) 4718

a (Swahili) 6346

abhinc (Latin) 3695

absentive 1307

absolute

          and relative tenses 1360

          constructions 2490, 5758

          tense 1097, 2564, 4180, 4391,             6567, 6568

          tense and relative tense 728,   6256

          theory of time 1158

absolute-relative tense 6256

abstract

          noun 5223

          predicates 1521, 3910, 4215

          syntax 3362

Abusch, Dorit 2444, 4461, 5402, 6308

acabar de + infinitive (Romance languages) 1495

accessibility relations 1506

accomplishments 182, 6314

achievements 1201, 1470, 2420, 4106, 4696, 4701

acquisition 55, 177, 374, 454, 569,             570, 612, 777, 903, 1047,
acquisition (continued)

                 1050, 1079, 1218, 1456,

                 1478, 1695, 1696, 1770,      1768, 1980, 2024, 2144,   2365, 2366, 2367, 2368,          2369, 2472, 2496, 2601, 2714, 2850, 2880, 2996,          3298, 3345, 3772, 3951,              3956, 3966, 4181, 4419,        4671, 4770, 4843, 4915,      5143, 5449, 5555, 5563,   5690, 5986, 5701, 6337,          6338, 6339, 6403, 6404, 6406

          Bulgarian 3914, 3915

          Chinese 3574

          Creole languages 81, 129,          5442

          Dutch 2601, 2602, 2603,            6132, 6452

          English 246, 1046, 1048,            1049, 1756, 1771, 2033,   2600, 2601, 2602, 3231,          3574, 4481, 4482, 4629, 4630, 5348, 5487, 5527,          5543, 6004, 6045, 6340,              6341

          English (Trinidad) 6560

          Finnish 5987

          French 89, 779, 1769, 2792,    3350

          German 4629, 4630

          Icelandic 4844, 4845

          Italian 6436

          Japanese 3574, 3865, 5439,     5447, 5451

          Korean 3475

          Mandarin 1694, 2656

          Mauritian Creole 65

          Modern Greek 5691

          Modern Hebrew 453

          Norwegian 4844

          Norwegian 4845

acquisition (continued)

          Pidgin languages 81

          Polish 6405

          Romance languages 2937

          Russian 246, 799

          Spanish 575, 576, 3231, 4629,            4630, 4864, 5527

          Swedish 6436

          Trinidadian Creole 6560

          Turkish 91, 92, 93

action 5309, 6109

          and time 108

action

          narrowly averted 3335

actional content 2875

actions 2123, 4616, 6198

          and events 109

activities 182, 430, 4777, 5853

activity verbs 2571, 2573

adhuc (Latin) 6012

adjectival passives 3237

adjectives 677, 686, 1522, 1789, 3149, 3360, 3717, 5166, 5475, 6157

advance of the reference point 1155

adverbial

          clauses 218

          particles 1342

adverbials 1182, 4193

adverbs 2543, 5851

          English 2543, 3404

adverbs of time 190, 344, 379, 511, 784, 955, 1126, 1183, 1526, 1623, 1964, 1975, 1987, 2104, 2147, 2361, 2413, 2448, 2551, 2557, 2560, 2592, 2716, 2736, 2753, 2772, 2803, 2949, 2951, 2964, 3018, 3137, 3151, 3278, 3289, 3368, 3426, 3450, 3452, 3481, 3516, 3639, 3702, 3798,

adverbs of time (continued)

          3958, 3969, 3984, 4033, 4034, 4150, 4243, 4451, 4456, 4512, 4535, 4551, 4557, 4591, 4686, 4698, 4794, 4915, 5175, 5200, 5382, 5544, 5655, 5663, 5697, 5714, 5850, 5863, 5873, 5940, 5959, 6012, 6098, 6138, 6234, 6238, 6280, 6605,

          Afrikaans 1115, 6120, 6514

          Amharic 121

          Basque 4982

          Bhitrauti 2622

          Biblical Hebrew 6117

          Spanish (Mexico, Central            America) 3134

          Chinese 318, 4548

          Czech 6604

          Dutch 219, 234, 1115, 1315,    2826, 5530

          Early Irish Gaelic 4744

          English 16, 43, 78, 188, 235,   378, 705, 783, 801, 832,      886, 972, 1163, 1361, 1369, 1396, 1415, 1526,   1545, 1908, 2034, 2036,          2055, 2141, 2182, 2366, 2402, 2558, 2560, 2562,          2639, 2738, 3073, 3102,              3147, 3149, 3276, 3425,        3477, 3550, 3919, 4039,      4040, 4041, 4105, 4192,   4282, 4454, 4596, 4699,          4794, 5095, 5182, 5264, 5265, 5266, 5546, 5941,          5943, 6031, 6281, 6287,              6307, 6514

          English (American 3646

          English (Black American)            3646

          English (Liberia) 5502

adverbs of time (continued)

          English (Singapore) 318

          English (South Africa) 6513

          Estonian 4681

          Finnish 2310, 5768

          French 234, 402, 670, 674,       885, 1984, 2055, 2961,   3120, 3147, 3376, 3378,          3465, 3800, 3821, 3881, 4389, 5031, 5182, 5599,          5802, 6099, 6227, 6253,              6254

          French (Québec) 3437

          German16, 234, 235, 376,         378, 931, 1489, 1629,   1735, 2468, 2576, 2804,          3102, 3123, 3147, 3641, 3964, 4875, 5241, 6099,          6175, 6307, 6596

          Haitian Creole 3465

          Hungarian 3831

          Italian 3533

          Japanese 4282

          Korean 3490, 6553

          Latin 2532, 4649, 4688

          Macedonian 2987

          Middle English 3121, 4595,      6369

          Modern Greek 104, 4806,           6531

          Nguni 4767

          Old English 2217, 3121, 4595,             6369

          Old French 1828

          Old Frisian 6317

          Old Spanish 5165

          Polish 234, 587, 972, 2804,      4596, 6405

          Portuguese 884, 1198

          Romance languages 1276,          4649

          Romanian 242, 4840


adverbs of time (continued)

          Russian 3536, 3967, 4681,        5381, 5638, 6321, 6604

          Sanskrit (Vedic) 5956

          Serbo-Croatian 2987

          Southern Turkic languages       2264

          Southwestern Turkic         languages 2004

          Spanish 575, 686, 832, 891,     904, 2017, 3964

          Spanish (Mexico) 3134

          Swahili 5235

          Swedish 4714

          Swedish (Finland) 2310

          Tagalog 4771

          Tok Pisin 5689

          Ukrainian 234, 3276

          West Germanic languages           3549

          Yoruba) 5599

Aelfric 6369, 6372

affectedness 2016, 5878

after (English) 170, 1047, 1079, 1179, 1771, 2144, 2328, 2445, 2589, 2639, 3146, 5549, 6045, 6128

after -ing (Irish English) 1944, 1945

agentivity 1508, 2705, 2773, 6610

ahora (Spanish) 832, 3964

ai (Ngati Porou Maori) 2072

aina (Finnish) 2448

ainda (Portuguese) 1198

akan (Malay) 3067

Akimova, T. 2025

ako

          Bulgarian 5721

          Macedonian 3228

Aktionsart 31, 197, 198, 200, 253, 265, 267, 300, 515, 535, 533, 657, 756, 775, 936, 937,
Aktionsart (continued)

          1238, 1300, 1343, 1546, 1620, 1622, 1623, 1731, 1883, 1884, 2092, 2108, 2220, 2442, 2485, 2486, 2745, 3024, 3099, 3150, 3209, 3717, 4193, 4206, 4597, 4609, 4735, 4846, 5030, 5073, 5122, 5281, 5409, 5744, 5993, 6118, 6126, 6154, 6189, 6191, 6210, 6242, 6243, 6260

          Ainu 4904

          Arabic (Cairo) 1637

          Arabic 568

          Bengali 5384

          Biblical Hebrew 1175

          Bulgarian 1438, 1466, 2980,    3842, 5352, 5717, 5902,   5903

          Catalan 561

          Chadic 6488

          Chinese 6608

          Classical Arabic 5352

          Czech 1841, 2342, 2732

          Dutch 99, 657, 658, 660, 935,              1541, 2534, 3468, 3469, 4516, 6203

          English 99, 157, 372, 430,         658, 756, 761, 763, 766,      1157, 1436, 1546, 2362,          2539, 2540, 2646, 3074, 4040, 4102, 4847, 4862,          5065, 5203, 5553, 5662,              5713, 5977, 5978, 6191,        6203, 6292, 6587

          English (British Guiana) 112

          Finnish 2971

          Finno-Ugric languages 2970,   3737

          Fongbe 3499


Aktionsart (continued)

          French 1113, 1571, 2245,          2980, 3499, 5330, 5553,   5713, 6239, 6271, 6467

          German 150, 153, 157, 354,     669, 935, 1113, 1466,   1595, 1596, 1619, 1734,          1735, 1751, 2107, 2332, 2534, 2745, 2989, 3189,          3223, 3267, 3468, 3469,              3524, 3594, 4328, 4730,        4932, 5305, 5682, 5713,      6053, 6175, 6449, 6608

          Germanic languages 4731,        4946

          Gothic 3189, 3629, 4946

          Greek 1755, 3139, 3256,             3987, 3988, 4078, 4750,   5017, 5948, 5950, 6391

          Haitian Creole 3499

          Hungarian 1192, 3050, 3053,               4560

          Indo-European languages           2009, 2480, 4757

          Italian 473, 475, 669, 927,        2219, 2342, 2980, 5713,   6198, 6292

          Japanese 3089

          Kipchak 2874

          Late Egyptian 6473

          Latin 2008, 3139, 3978, 4078,             4946, 6024, 6391

          Malacca Creole Portuguese 5951

          Mandarin 5553

          Middle French 5329

          Navaho 5553

          Norwegian 1043, 6158

          Old Church Slavonic 5287

          Old English 2607, 3674, 4946

          Old French 5329

          Old High German 3189, 4890,              4968, 6391

Aktionsart (continued)

          Polish 71, 1751, 2980, 2989,   6449

          Portuguese 3115

          Proto-Indo-European 2009

          Romance languages 3095,          4946, 5352, 5636

          Romanian 5717

          Russian 150, 153, 168, 354,     578, 709, 1043, 2219,   2332, 2745, 2980, 4195,          4781, 5352, 5419, 5420, 5553, 5902, 5903, 5904,          6047, 6048

          Selkup 614

          Semitic languages 5368

          Slavic languages 1517, 3842, 4078, 4408, 5350, 5902

          South Caucasian languages       5297

          Spanish 44, 821, 1041, 3813, 4828, 4829, 4971, 5022

          Swedish 157, 4713, 4716

          Ukrainian 1438

          Yiddish 1751, 5234, 5682

Aktionsart

          and mood 352

          and tense 269, 1335

          versus aspect 492, 2485,             2486, 2580, 2745, 2980,   3171, 4735, 4847, 5066,          5197, 5710, 6260, 6451

Aktionsarten 2875, 3640

al (Dutch) 1315, 6152

Alas, Leopoldo 574

Alfonso X 3652

algebraic

          approach 3582

          semantics 3608

Allen, James F. 1992

Allen, Robert L. 4109


aller

          French 5462

          Gascon 3801

aller + infinitive (French) 706, 1830, 1847, 2292, 6350

Allwood et al., Jens 4494

alors (French) 4389

already (English) 16, 318, 1361, 2551, 3147, 3274, 3642, 4033, 4034, 4039, 4105, 6031, 6106

als (German) 2504, 4390, 6622

alternately (English) 3425

Alvarez Gardeazabal, Gustavo 3788

always (English) 4457

amarem (Latin) 6182

an (Okinawan) 5433

an-construction (German) 1809, 2208

anaphoric and deictic tenses 6245

anar + gerund (Catalan) 1718

anchoring 1846, 5544

          conditions 1662, 2075

          conditions for tense 4455

and 2850

andare + gerund (Italian) 485

Andersen, Roger W. 867

Anderson, John M. 1090, 3920, 4977

Andersson, E. 4714

Andersson, S. 354

Anscombre, Jean-Claude 4496

ante (Latin) 3695

anterior 857

anteriority 913, 1330, 1679, 3464, 3485, 3497, 3968, 4136, 4624, 4985, 5001, 5038, 5425, 5626, 5658, 5725, 5962, 6182, 6462

Antinucci, F. 2934, 2981

antipassivization 4830

antiquity 319

anymore (English) 4188, 4192

aorist

          aspect 205, 337, 406, 500,         877, 967, 2355, 2648,   3042, 3301, 3403, 4440,          4618, 4705, 5019, 5400, 5465, 6061, 6291

          imperfective 2863

aorist tense 1196, 3361

          Adyghe 2086

          Albanian 1441

          Armenian 3004, 5924

          Basque 5924

          Berber languages 1979

          Bulgarian 1431, 1536, 1801,    2235, 2240, 2929, 3597,   4057, 4614, 5720, 5723,          5924

          Catalan 5924

          Czech 3127, 6623

          English 1062

          Estonian 5924

          French 1431, 2235, 4057,          5924

          German 4614

          Greek 294, 704, 958, 1062,       1557, 2210, 2287, 2379,   2380, 2605, 2678, 3047,          3127, 3247, 3299, 3300, 3302, 3440, 4210, 4631,          4750, 4969, 5043, 5053,              5153, 5640

          Hausa 906, 2164

          Hittite 231

          Icelandic 5924

          Indo-European languages 231

          Italian 5924

          Latin 3440

          Lithuanian 2793, 5924

          Maltese 5924

          Middle Greek 3251

          Modern Greek 1536, 3251,        4082, 4564, 5924

aorist tense (continued)

          Old Church Slavonic 679, 3811

          Old Russian 3142

          Polish 5924, 6623

          Portuguese 5924

          Romanian 5720, 5924

          Russian 995, 2335, 2863,           4614, 5969

          Sanskrit 3004

          Sanskrit (Vedic) 1648, 2136

          Serbo-Croatian 422, 2922,         5046, 5722, 5924, 5930,   6144, 6328

          Slavic languages 1995, 2750

          Slovak 6623

          Slovenian 5924

          Sorbian 5924

          Spanish 5924

          Tsova-Tush (Batsi) 2599

          Turkic languages 3155, 3339

          Turkish 441, 5222, 6538

          Uralic languages 4897

          West Oghuz Turkic 2868

aorist tense

          versus imperfect tense 1380,    1804, 1925, 1928, 1935,   2070, 2929, 3297, 3336,          3780, 3796, 4066, 4610, 4985, 5902

aoristic function 4808

aphou (Modern Greek) 2589

apo (Modern Greek) 4806

Apollonius 3365

après (French) 466

après que (French) 3284

Åqvist 3325

architectonic of verbs 6559

areal

          approach 4020

          linguistics 1100

argument roles 3229

Aristotle 49, 180, 196, 199, 201, 202, 203, 2170, 4990

Aronson, Howard 3228

artificial intelligence 3586, 5459

arunter- (Yiddish) 6401

as (English) 4190, 4594, 5487

as soon as (English) 6142

Asher, Nicholas 2102

aspect 17, 22, 79, 138, 176, 257, 258, 265, 267, 349, 480, 498, 529, 533, 535, 552, 593, 629, 636, 657, 682, 714, 778, 852, 859, 861, 879, 954, 962, 978, 1002, 1026, 1037, 1108, 1143, 1191, 1214, 1226, 1240, 1405, 1425, 1426, 1428, 1433, 1442, 1482, 1492, 1508, 1580, 1585, 1603, 1633, 1731, 1813, 1833, 1889, 1894, 1951, 1993, 2039, 2092, 2108, 2137, 2160, 2232, 2234, 2253, 2254, 2371, 2389, 2391, 2442, 2487, 2517, 2550, 2557, 2567, 2577, 2579, 2699, 2751, 2761, 2776, 2886, 2983, 3044, 3070, 3100, 3176, 3179, 3184, 3193, 3209, 3237, 3248, 3260, 3293, 3308, 3359, 3372, 3373, 3526, 3552, 3555, 3596, 3696, 3712, 3716, 3717, 3745, 3757, 3785, 3810, 3836, 3843, 3851, 3857, 3981, 4006, 4052, 4087, 4289, 4290, 4293, 4443, 4475, 4476, 4487, 4638, 4684, 4708, 4717, 4774, 4810, 4921, 4943, 4965, 5002, 5030, 5074, 5100, 5162, 5184, 5198, 5267, 5269, 5282, 5317, 5370, 5374, 5474, 5481, 5505, 5547, 5550, 5560, 5744, 5772,

aspect (continued)

                 5920, 5993, 6003, 6035,      6063, 6153, 6226, 6247,   6315, 6352, 6474, 6544,          6617

          ‘Basaa 3904

          Afro-Asiatic languages 5341

          Ainu 4904

          Aka 5928

          Akateko 4613

          Akøøse 2439

          Aleut 450, 2134

          Altaic languages 3344

          Angas 2920

          Arabic 166, 228, 567, 1105,     1248, 1646, 4009, 4673,   6474

          Arabic (Cairo) 1512, 1638

          Arabic (Judeo-Arabic 1012

          Arabic (Kuwait) 96

          Arabic (Spoken Literary)             1512

          Arabic (Tunisia) 417

          Armenian 15, 5924

          Australian languages 1483,      1484, 4004

          Avestan 3013

          Badaga 4682

          Baka 5928

          Balochi 25

          Bangwa 4370

          Bantu languages 103, 2091,     4418

          Bargam 2479

          Basque 2281, 2283, 5924

          Beja 6299

          Belhare 514

          Bengali 275, 979

          Berber (Kabyle) 4023

          Biblical Hebrew 2212, 2465,     2491, 2586, 2845, 4022,   4877, 4941

          Bonggi 711

aspect (continued)

          Breton 2466

          Bulgarian 812, 1400, 1536,       1907, 1918, 2161, 2231,   2233, 2923, 2926, 3363,          3583, 3835, 3838, 3846, 3915, 5121, 5343, 5652,          5902, 5905, 5924, 6167,              6195, 6354

          Buriat 3754

          Burmese 1137

          Caribbean French Creole            languages 3923

          Catalan 561, 3390, 5289,           5924

          Cebaari (Central Senari) 5614

          Cebaari 4155

          Central Pomo 4098

          Central Sudanic 1732

          Chadic languages 1302, 5341,             6488, 6489, 6490

          Chechen 3039

          Chewa-Nyanja 48

          ChiBemba 2091

          ChiChewa 3771

          Chinese 984, 996, 1753, 2709,            2710, 2946, 3105, 3573, 3574, 5551, 5631, 5944,          6600, 6602, 6608

          Chinookan 5494

          ChiYao 3771

          Chuj 4613

          Chukchee 4321, 4329

          Circassian languages 3028

          Classical Arabic 3673

          Classical languages 66, 4637

          Cree (Montagnais) 1215, 1216

          Creole (Costa Rica) 4752

          Creole languages 129, 518, 4247, 5442

          Croatian 596, 1260

                
aspect (continued)

          Czech 327, 979, 1270, 1609,    1610, 2340, 2341, 2464,   2732, 3158, 3161, 3163,          3292, 4073, 4403, 5121

          Czechoslavakian 4549

          Dagestanian languages 2697

          Damara 3097

          Danish 2464, 2642, 5611

          Dari 4504

          Dharghinian 11

          Dravidian languages 5508

          Dravo-Polabian 5778, 5779

          Dutch 657, 658, 660, 935,          1530, 1532, 1542, 1590,   3470, 4225, 5531, 6136,          6146, 6203, 6209

          English 4, 157, 162, 261, 553,              566, 658, 806, 853, 854,        872, 974, 1039, 1114, 1130, 1159, 1207, 1268, 1270, 1480, 1506, 1638,          1646, 1704, 1709, 1814,              1970, 2150, 2250, 2315,        2363, 2371, 2405, 2464,      2467, 2608, 2647, 2694,   2779, 2855, 2886, 2901,          2915, 2932, 3012, 3033, 3076, 3088, 3243, 3292,          3387, 3401, 3509, 3574,              3727, 3771, 3794, 3844,        3871, 3913, 3975, 3985,      4001, 4023, 4155, 4262,   4264, 4265, 4266, 4338,          4340, 4403, 4540, 4541, 4542, 4562, 4669, 4675,          4833, 4848, 4862, 5071,              5186, 5187, 5190, 5203,        5320, 5323, 5348, 5473,      5483, 5553, 5662, 5824,   5832, 5856, 5875, 5877,          5954, 5978, 6004, 6027,


aspect (continued)

          English (continued)

                 6136, 6146, 6172, 6203,      6425, 6557, 6600, 6642

          English (American) 111, 4505

          English (Black English) 144,     1298, 13261617

          English (Papua New Guinea)    5532

          Estonian 5924

          European languages 1245

          Fez 1012

          Fijian 204

          Finnish 193, 1249, 2450,           2969, 3083, 3514, 5996,   6136, 6545

          Finno-Ugric languages 4821,   5390

          Fongbe 3498

          French 162, 423, 596, 616,       677, 779, 920, 942, 948,      1074, 1087, 1113, 1131,          1260, 1261, 1303, 1435, 1559, 1571, 1729, 1806,          1857, 1874, 1881, 1888,              1890, 1953, 1955, 2127,        2158, 2213, 2258, 2281,      2429, 2430, 2514, 2630,   2798, 2841, 2938, 3012,          3033, 3372, 3373, 3498, 3844, 4028, 4092, 4158,          4721, 4733, 4734, 4758,              4874, 4903, 4911, 5131,        5220, 5314, 5553, 5924,      6100, 6101, 6171, 6200,   6228, 6259, 6468, 6474,          6546, 6547, 6565

          Frisian 1600, 3953

          Fula 4402, 6628

          Gã 3285

          Galician 4170

          Gascon 2281

          Gbaya Kara ‘Bodoe 5079

aspect (continued)

          Georgian 2593, 2598

          German 24, 25, 157, 935,           1039, 1113, 1206, 1222,   1270, 1290, 1506, 1682,          1751, 1875, 2037, 2107, 2115, 2118, 2215, 2501,          3223, 3364, 3470, 3524,              3527, 3794, 3844, 4170,        4186, 4220, 4932, 4933,      4934, 4935, 5131, 5240,   6175, 6600, 6608

          German (Pennsylvania) 4900

          Germanic languages 1600,        2078, 3262

          Ghanaian Pidgin English 2660

          Gothic 3630, 4086, 5254,           6394

          Greek 67, 179, 386, 459, 545,               803, 868, 1141, 1152, 1185, 1391, 1506, 1537,          1543, 1572, 1701, 1936,              1997, 2143, 2255, 2382,        2518, 3185, 3530, 3544,      3677, 3859, 4367, 4487,   4635, 4685, 4750, 4751,          4958, 4988, 4993, 5080, 5094, 5099, 5101, 5399,          5468, 5490, 5819, 6394

          Gronings 3953

          Guaraní 368

          Guinea-Bissau Creole (Bissau-   Bolama) 5917

          Gurdu˜ 2386

          Guyanese Creole 1617

          Haida 1588

          Haitian Creole 1262, 3498

          Hamitic languages (Chad)          2918

          Hausa 419, 907, 1291, 2164,   2920, 4357, 4683, 5341

          Haya 5157

         

aspect (continued)

          Hebrew 1538, 1728, 3327,

                 3925, 4371, 4835, 5107,      6013, 6348

          Hindi 2289, 6141

          Hindi-Urdu 25, 275, 850

          Hmong (Miao) 3569

          Hopi 6431

          Hu-Limba 462

          Hungarian 48, 3048, 5814,       6331

          Iau 367

          Ibibio 1720

          Icelandic 5924

          Igbo 4493

          Indic languages 979, 5015

          Indo-European languages           3031, 3314

          Indo-Iranian languages 1537, 1997

          Indo-Pacific languages 2479

          Ingus 2246

          Inuktitut 4406

          Irish 1518, 4425

          Italian 76, 460, 475, 572, 647,             2087, 2219, 2340, 2341, 3243, 4001, 5124, 5131,          5924, 6198

          Jakalteko 4613

          Japanese 2769, 3072, 3344,     3574, 4259, 4262, 4472,   5439, 5447, 5584, 5765,          5817, 5834, 6557

          Jawony 4004

          Jinghpaw 3774

          Jukun languages (Benue-             Congo) 5728

          Kabyle (Berber) 4024

          Kammu 5783, 5785

          Kartvelian languages 3723

          Kasim 654

          Khalkha Mongolian 5784

          Kipchak 2874

aspect (continued)

          Kokuyon 1866

          Korean 75, 272, 2268, 3344,    3473, 3476, 3482, 3493,   4468, 5587

          Koyukon Athabaskan 248

          Kraho 368

          Krio 2893

          Kru languages 1054

          Kusaiean 3486

          Latin 1083, 1251, 1498, 1703,             1830, 2008, 2187, 2255, 2382, 3025, 3976, 3977,          3978, 4026, 4690, 4692,              4922, 5103, 5754, 6011,        6018, 6042, 6166, 6199,      6505

          Latvian 3647, 3861, 3862,         5644

          Lezgian 3029

          Limbu 6124

          Limon Creole 2506

          Limouzi 2839

          Lithuanian 825, 1259, 1989,    2168, 3861, 3862, 4925,   5136, 5924

          Luiseño 5668

          Macedonian 812, 1907, 1910,              1918, 1929, 3145, 5343

          Makaa 2431

          Malay 2630

          Maltese 668, 1733, 5924

          Manchu 245

          Manda 4852

          Mandarin 2138, 2658, 3570,   3585, 3736, 5553

          Mangarayi 4004

          Manobo 1551

          Maori 2072

          Mara 2432

          Martinique Creole 1262

          Mayan languages 4613

          Middle French 6464

aspect (continued)

          Middle High German 1290

          Middle Japanese 5308

          Middle Mongolian 4520

          Mixtec 521

          Mocho 3815

          Modern Aramaic 2566

          Modern Greek 105, 1506,           1536, 2436, 3752, 4361,   4365, 4367, 4562, 4565,          5371, 5924, 6129, 6186

          Modern Hebrew 6073

          Mofu-Gudur 2606

          Mongolian 272, 5424

          Mundani 4575

          Na-Dene languages 1588

          Nanai 244

          Navaho 2356, 5553

          Navajo 5561

          Ndonga (Oshindonga) 1872

          Ngalakan 4004

          Ngando 5928

          Ngbaka 5928

          Nigerian Pidgin 1326

          Northern Iroquoian languages             1867, 1868

          Norwegian 5173

          Nunggubuyu 2432

          Occitan (Gascon) 2281

          Occitan 5289

          Okanagan 3877

          Old Arabic 6

          Old Babylonian 3537

          Old Bulgarian 6394

          Old Church Slavonic 680,           1516, 2027, 2417, 3141

          Old Czech 5778, 5779

          Old English 2630, 4848

          Old French 1303

          Old Georgian 5295

          Old Italian 76

          Old Japanese 3563

          Old Lithuanian 5137

aspect (continued)

          Old Russian 455, 3650, 4299

          Panamanian Creole 2506

          Pashto 6294

          Pennsylvania Dutch 4900

          Persian 6474

          Philippine Creole Spanish          3610

          Polish 71, 356, 1751, 2029,      2162, 2163, 2464, 2613,   3128, 3129, 3178, 3212,          4079, 4100, 4694, 4695, 4799, 5747, 5924, 6136,          6444, 6589

          Ponapean 3486

          Portuguese 368, 919, 920,          3610, 4480, 5185, 5186,   5189, 5190, 5924, 6032

          Proto-Rutara 4248

          Provençal 3390

          Q’anjob’al 4613

          Q’eqchi’ (Kekchi) 1338

          Quechua 60

          Quechua (Conchucos) 5702

          Quechua (Equatorial Pastaza) 1765

          Réunnionais Creole 876

          Romance languages 1017,          1145, 1830, 2028, 2078,   3355, 5636

          Ron 2920

          Rumanian 5924

          Russian 10, 236, 237, 238,        322, 327, 356, 418, 591,      600, 622, 625, 628, 630,          632, 635, 638, 683, 724,        729, 747, 826, 827, 864,          868, 920, 991, 993, 1249,       1582, 1609, 1610, 1814,        1840, 1849, 1864, 1918,      1989, 2019, 2037, 2085,   2131, 2167, 2219, 2260,


aspect (continued)

          Russian (continued) 2261, 2262, 2320, 2334, 2464, 2630, 2642, 2693, 2698, 2731, 2787, 2978, 2982, 3243, 3505, 3506, 3509, 3844, 3845, 3850, 3853, 3900, 3902, 3903, 3985, 4070, 4071, 4076, 4077, 4138, 4211, 4234, 4288, 4305, 4375, 4403, 4728, 4782, 4805, 4850, 4868, 4869, 4870, 4872, 5114, 5116, 5121, 5125, 5131, 5138, 5307, 5342, 5383, 5421, 5483, 5553, 5592, 5618, 5789, 5902, 5963, 5966, 5996, 6019, 6046, 6067, 6091, 6124, 6136, 6168, 6320, 6474, 6480, 6482, 6583, 6589, 6597, 6626

          Salishan languages 2433,           3079

          Samoan 4075

          Sango 1462

          Sanskrit 1537, 5054

          Scottish Gaelic 64, 4857

          Semitic languages 1073, 1077,             3319, 3322, 4434, 5368, 6070

          Serbo-Croatian 1447, 2198,      2221, 2222, 4063, 4100,   5115, 5924, 5929, 5932

          Sesotho 3730

          Shambala 501

          Slavic languages 353, 812,        970, 979, 992, 1446, 1513,   1854, 1997, 1998, 2028,          2924, 2930, 3084, 3175, 3181, 3183, 3185, 3462,          3507, 3583, 3755, 3848,              3849, 3852, 3901, 4005,

aspect (continued)

          Slavic languages (continued)   4084, 4153, 4599, 5124,   5351, 5610, 5646, 5902,          5908, 6026, 6087, 6206, 6265, 6302, 6422, 6485

          Slovak 2731, 4603

          Slovenian 1999, 5924, 6574

          Sorbian 5924

          Southern Nigerian languages 1326

          Spanish 44, 387, 686, 847,        891, 998, 1036, 1316,   1317, 1407, 1518, 1559,          1779, 2490, 3664, 3732, 3733, 4851, 4942, 5039,          5040, 5045, 5097, 5142,              5147, 5491, 5492, 5521,        5621, 5924, 6185

          Swahili 4155

          Swedish 149, 157, 2118

          Tagalog 1395, 4861

          Tahitian 3787

          Tamang 3899

          Tamil 1773, 5262

          Tarma 60

          Telugu 6268

          Tikar 2764

          Tiktoo 123

          Tsou 6592

          Tuareg 3503

          Tunumiisut 3994, 3995

          Turkic languages 2005, 3165,              6584

          Turkish 1486, 1929, 2865,        2870, 6474, 6536

          Uighur 2698

          Ukrainian 1004, 2939, 5121

          Uzbek 2698, 4284, 4305

          Warrungu 6060

          Welsh 2466

          West Slavic languages 5778,     5779

aspect (continued)

          Wolof 5006

          Yakut 973

          Yala 4474

          Yasa 688

          Yiddish 393, 1453, 1750,            1751, 2120, 4288, 6422

          Yoruba 192

          Yup’ik 4099

          Zapotec (Isthmus) 4676

          Zulu 507

aspect

          and Aktionsart 261, 267, 335,              484, 517, 582, 729, 762,        1220, 1229, 1238, 1409,          1436, 1883, 3095, 3355,              3717, 4862, 5234, 5902,        6175, 6292, 6587

          and case 48, 1135, 3082,            3955, 4816, 5560, 5877

          and causality 5333

          and ergativity 250

          and modality 4755

          and mood 7, 21, 141, 154,         211, 213, 292, 537, 538,      595, 817, 941, 966, 1008,       1187, 1253, 1334, 1452, 2266, 2284, 2375, 2376,          2640, 2884, 2903, 3067,              3228, 3492, 3704, 3941,        3969, 4064, 4364, 4524,      4979, 5455, 5604, 5605,   6025, 6533, 2266

          and tense 217, 261, 267, 410,              484, 659, 1091, 2905, 2990, 3177, 3341, 3479,          3636, 3678, 3694, 3703,              3866, 3922, 3945, 5167,        5902, 6026, 6202, 6328

          and voice 271, 290, 408, 411,               439, 451, 462, 615, 936,        1091, 1092, 1468, 1721,          1860, 1935, 1942, 1985,

aspect (continued)

          and voice (continued)

                 2045, 2130, 2746, 2797,      3188, 3196, 3323, 3715,   3720, 3724, 3769, 3833,          4112, 4167, 4285, 4295, 4306, 4312, 4341, 4509,          4534, 4780, 4781, 4782,              4804, 4909, 4928, 5077,        5292, 5302, 5318, 5395,      5416, 5430, 5634, 5688,   5716, 5719, 5890, 6051,          6097, 6161, 6269, 6304, 6352, 6365, 6366

          correlation 5105

          in narration 5967

          operators 515

          shift 1491, 5798, 6633

          versus Aktionsart 260, 490,      763, 1238, 1755, 2116,   5352

aspects 5023

aspectual

          auxiliary verbs 148, 187, 585,              760, 763, 1717, 1898, 2331, 2722, 2757, 3021,          3369, 3370, 3748, 3985,              4332, 4359, 4401, 4465,        4537, 4597, 4633, 4717,      5016, 5062, 5426, 5849,   5886, 5978, 6205

          catenatives 757

          character 345

aspectual

          classes of verbs 1521, 1526,     1528, 3206, 3416, 5016,   5185, 6218

          coercion 4684, 4815, 4817

          composition 6429

          crossing 4179

          determination 2321

          interface hypothesis 5876

          polarity 1002

aspectual (continue)

          shift 4810

          skewing 2432

          verbs 2841

aspectuality 629, 2391

aspectualizing auxiliary verbs 430, 432, 1145, 1827, 4360, 4828, 5203, 6486

asteur (French) 3437

at (English) 3146, 5170, 6447

atemporality 4726

attendu que (French) 5464

attitude contexts 34, 40

attitudes 2084

aún (Spanish) 891

Austen, Jane 4891

automatic

          semantic analysis 3743

          text processing 2259, 3881,      4597, 5032, 5034

auxiliary verbs 41, 68, 90, 128, 210, 232, 298, 315, 452, 609, 696, 697, 698, 774, 796, 844, 937, 950, 1014, 1054, 1068, 1212, 1257, 1757, 1828, 1905, 1986, 2004, 2006, 2011, 2032, 2059, 2076, 2088, 2117, 2180, 2293, 2296, 2452, 2456, 2469, 2478, 2494, 2553, 2661, 2664, 2672, 2741, 2814, 2820, 2884, 2911, 3016, 3017, 3019, 3189, 3230, 3233, 3334, 3345, 3386, 3465, 3520, 3529, 3531, 3545, 3547, 3577, 3646, 3693, 3750, 3777, 3801, 3818, 3911, 4093, 4219, 4379, 4545, 4570, 4634, 4653, 4689, 4809, 4826, 4888, 4975, 4979, 5005, 5061, 5069, 5148, 5159, 5290, 5306, 5313, 5398,

auxiliary verbs (continued)

          5409, 5410, 5411, 5433, 5434, 5462, 5502, 5520, 5536, 5538, 5580, 5606, 5667, 5669, 5670, 5671, 5725, 5949, 6015, 6069, 6119, 6161, 6174, 6278, 6316, 6336, 6365, 6366, 6471, 6477, 6486, 6601, 6609

auxiliation 5671

avant (French) 466, 885

avant de + infinitive (French) 3371

avant que (French) 3454

aviri a + infinitive (Sicilian) 1606

avoir (French) 6284

Avvakum 5969

axiological approach 5068

axis of orientation 823

b-imperfect 1512

B-Theory 1173, 1174

ba (Chinese) 987, 996, 1022, 3566, 3568, 3615, 3616, 3961

ba (Mandarin) 968, 3617, 5877, 5945, 6499

Bach, Emmon 4623

Bache, Carl 6216

Bache et al., Carl 3603

back-shifting 2662, 2856

backshift rule 2662

bai (Tok Pisin) 5180

baldigst (German) 3123

Ballmer, Thomas 433

bare plural nouns 431

Bartov, Hanoch 4213

Bartsch, Renate 5925

Barwise, Jon 4590

Basset, L. 5092

Bauer, H. 2734

Bäuerle, Rainer 2195

 

be (English) 256, 1336, 2250,           2864, 3894, 3895, 3896,   3897, 4249, 6417

          + -ing (English) 53, 3401,           3581, 3917, 3972, 3973,   4792

          about to + infinitive (English) 2861

          going to (English) 526, 527,     1130, 4442, 4742

          going to + infinitive (English) 447, 1269, 2292, 2294,   2318, 3396, 4379, 6336,          6435, 6616

be (Cameroon Pidgin English) 5979

Beauzée, Nicolas 230, 4753, 5208, 5210, 5211, 5807

before (English) 170, 1047, 1079, 1179, 1345, 1373, 1770, 1771, 2144, 2328, 2445, 2449, 2589, 2639, 3146, 3709, 4454, 5549, 5888, 6045, 6128, 6573

before-clauses 1472

begin (English) 148, 1898, 4359, 4401, 4465, 4633, 5062

benedictive mood 4914

Bennett, Jonathan 5576

Benveniste, Émile 1318, 4167, 5514

between (English) 3146

bevor (German) 5169, 5633

Beykhaki, Abu-l-Fazlom 5148

bhii (Hindi) 3358

bibliography 400, 1088, 1711, 1712, 2151, 2152, 2153, 2584, 4333, 4421, 4592, 5344, 6121, 6639

Bickerton, Derek 340, 667, 876, 1379, 1861, 2064, 2065, 3231, 3575, 3873, 3883,
Bickerton, Derek (continued)              4519, 4606, 5178, 5179,             5484, 5504, 5623, 5624,          5725, 5914, 5915

bin (Nigerian Pidgin) 4445, 4446

binding 194, 5432

          analysis of tense 3494

          theory 5587

Binnick, Robert I. 1237, 2318

bioprogram (see too Bickerton) 340, 5442

bis (German) 308, 4875

Bishop Eznik of Kolb 5405

Blake, Frank R. 3628

Blanche-Benveniste, Claire 5076

Bloch, J. 5672

Bobrowski, Ireneusz 2156

Bohoric, A. 5250

Bondarko, A. V. 1577, 3253, 5376

Borg, Albert 813

Borges, Jorge Luis 3683

boundedness 631, 633, 640, 816, 1119, 1157, 1229, 1238, 1314, 1343, 1344, 1352, 1415, 1416, 1418, 1431, 1587, 1622, 1811, 1841, 2029, 2451, 2659, 2762, 2928, 3082, 3103, 3616, 4902, 5425, 6528

bounds 2761, 3208, 3210

branching-futures model 5858

Braude, Stephen E. 6458

Bree, David Sidney 1578

Brennenstuhl, Waltraud 433

Breton, André 4612

bu (Chinese) 3764

budem (Serbo-Croatian) 2756

Bull, William 389, 3014, 3015, 4491, 5195

Buridan 4470

Burzio, Luigi 25, 950, 3359

by (English) 3146, 5170, 6502

Bybee, Joan L. 3335

bylo (Russian) 4822, 6533

byti (Old Church Slavonic and Old Russian) 6143

Caesar, Julius Gaius 2690, 5047, 6225

calques 6005

Camus, Albert 333

can (English) 3233, 4250

Carballido, Emilio 3683

Carling, Christine 3477

case 193, 300, 509, 1851, 3002,      3135, 3240, 3359

          and aspect 18, 23, 434, 1309, 2972, 3323, 4667, 5968,   5998

          and tense 2545

Case

          distribution 4572

          Grammar 1464, 3478

Castenada, Hector-Neri 1059

categorial grammar 349

categories of

          aspect 59

          verbs 266, 3979

Cato 6024

causal inferences 5333

causatives 2394, 4376

          and transitivity 4376

causativity 827, 3308

Caxton 6369

ce (French) 4902

cease (English) 1898

Cela, José Camilio 333

cessative aspect 2460

Champion, J. J. 1829

changchang (Chinese) 4548

change 4776, 5360

change of state 1546

channel-theory 2102, 2103

chanson de geste 831, 3003

chas (Russian) 6604

Chaucer, Geoffrey 2526

Chekhov, Anton P. 2806, 2848

Chierchia, G. 6455

Chrétien de Troyes 1869

Christiane, F. 5593

chronological

          modal logics 4387

          theory 830

chronoscopic perspective 4517

chronosemantics 1294

Cicero 2531, 2532, 2847, 5388

cikim (Korean) 3490

cim (Papago) 2312

cim (Pima) 1437

cislocative 9

Clark, Eve 5701

Clédat, Léon 5126

coercion 430, 729, 4581, 4810, 5798

cognition 2891, 4388

cognitive

          approach 1210, 1446, 3395,    4432, 6600

          explanation 3769

          function 3394

cognitive

          grammar 1271, 2651, 2652,     3129, 3187, 3389, 3565,   4267

          grammar approach 3387

          interpretation 2925

          linguistics 1469, 1692, 1885,   2421, 3512

          point of view 2822

          representation 6543

          semantics 1385, 2504, 3874

          significance 4641

cognitively salient categories 3227

Cohen, Gerald 5428

coherence 467, 656, 658, 662, 801, 871, 1318, 1396, 2248, 2316, 2565, 2636, 2916, 3010, 3134, 3420, 3656, 3664, 3893, 3930, 4389,


coherence (continued)

          5051, 5332, 5333, 5906, 6149, 6256, 6343

cohesion-aspect 3012

cohortative 2119

come (English) 1831, 4946

comparative aspectology 3851

competition of aspects 5786

complement clauses 2603, 4271, 5035

complementizers 1299

complete (English) 1898

completive

          aspect 1238

          marker 5502

completivity 1563

complex

          action 4926

          aspectivity particles 6153

          future tense 1832

          past tense 1832, 3032, 3792,   4181

          predicates 935

          tense 6256

          tenses 3305

component driven verbal projection model 1709

componential analysis 5363, 5768

compositionality 1730, 2820, 3719, 4151, 4456, 4588, 6125, 6210, 6219, 6409

compound

          tenses 85, 98, 220, 2007,            3816, 3866, 5898

          verb 2616, 2617

          verbs 2698, 5120

comprehension 5366

computational

          approach 2503, 4597, 4929,    5034, 6428, 6429

          linguistics 1963, 2259, 2542,   3974, 5186

computer 5832

computer (continued)

          models 3735

          processing 2559

Comrie, Bernard 1233, 1348, 1364, 1767, 2065, 2662, 2827, 3071, 3726, 4546, 4766, 4853

conation 2333, 5230

conceptual structure 3049

conclusive present perfect 765

conditional 6175

          clauses 2437

          mood 2112, 2996, 6316

          perfect tense 1093, 6256

          sentences 890

conditional tense 243, 560, 612, 1093, 1098, 1113, 1223, 2047, 2112, 2159, 2305, 2679, 3087, 3652, 3663, 3816, 3825, 4207, 4208, 4320, 4383, 4678, 5192, 5336, 6248, 6256, 6375, 6385, 6414

conditionality 2679

conditionals 1179, 1565, 1835, 2047, 2159, 2185, 2374, 2546, 2639, 2884, 3441, 3472, 3683, 3864, 4012, 4750, 4798, 4915, 4989, 5086, 5157, 5354, 5403, 5423, 5639, 6037, 6071, 6127, 6188, 6530, 6570, 6571

Confais, Jean-Paul 746

conjunction 3088

connectionism 2876

consecutive 3682

constructional polysemy 4036


context 786, 874, 1312, 1546, 1634, 1769, 1800, 1935, 1964, 2155, 2536, 2542, 2957, 3058, 3148, 3192, 3414, 3427, 3429, 3437, 4095, 4351, 5562, 5696, 5797, 6363

context-dependent approach 4565

continuative 3830

          aspect 763, 3887, 4215

          construction 2494

          perfect 372, 6641

continue (English) 1898

continued action 5309

continuity 1563, 3796, 4041

contrary to fact 4420

contrastive

          analysis 4556

          aspectology 2751, 3854

converbs 2397, 2743, 2872, 3150

Cooper, R. 5884

coordinating conjunctions 3700

coordination 3129

copula 4428, 5082, 5130, 6475

coreference 5557

Cornu, Maurice 2474

corpus linguistics 786

Coseriu, Eugenio 3788

counterfactuality 1242, 2694

counterfactuals 427, 2343, 3709, 5662, 6375

Craig, W. L. 3686

Crain, Stephen 5701

creole languages 45, 46, 65, 81, 129, 130, 277, 284, 291, 342, 394, 437, 519, 520, 667, 865, 866, 867, 876, 1015, 1060, 1132, 1262, 1263, 1264, 1265, 1296, 1297, 1311, 1379, 1411, 1442, 1509, 1574, 1617, 1626, 1714, 1745, 1757, 1861, 2064, 2065, 2095, 2133, 2169,

creole languages (continued)

          2314, 2344, 2424, 2425, 2426, 2505, 2506, 2785, 2833, 2893, 3027, 3056, 3057, 3190, 3191, 3352, 3408, 3465, 3497, 3498, 3499, 3500, 3575, 3611, 3671, 3694, 3873, 3874, 3883, 3884, 3885, 3887, 3923, 4042, 4065, 4111, 4215, 4217, 4218, 4247, 4394, 4519, 4600, 4606, 4718, 4736, 4752, 4959, 5010, 5041, 5075, 5084, 5128, 5129, 5130, 5161, 5178, 5179, 5180, 5290, 5354, 5397, 5398, 5470, 5484, 5485, 5502, 5503, 5505, 5522, 5623, 5624, 5625, 5626, 5679, 5689, 5724, 5725, 5726, 5829, 5914, 5915, 5916, 5917, 5951, 6014, 6017, 6223, 6224, 6312, 6342, 6459, 6475, 6476, 6478, 6484, 6507, 6560, 6561, 6562, 6563

Culioli, A. 1555, 5001, 5599

cum (Latin) 4463

cumulative Aktionsart 3000, 4195

current relevance 1247, 4335

cursivity 4679

Cutrer, L. Michelle 1692

cwan-e (Newari) 3086

czasem (Polish) 234

d’abord (French) 3437

da (Caribbean English Creole) 4718

da (German) 308

da (Norwegian) 1901

da (Slavic languages) 792

da (Vietnamese) 4551

Dahl, Östen 1217, 3071, 3335, 3873, 5149

Dale, A. 1565

Damourette 5207, 5219

dan (Afrikaans) 6120

Danes, Frantisek 5401

dang (Vietnamese) 4551

dann (German) 308

Darmesteter, A. 1978

dates 4203

Daudet, A. 1295

Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels 1359, 2768, 2877

Davidson, Donald 1520, 1608, 2500, 4858, 5795, 5852

de (Caribbean English Creole) 4718

de (Nigerian Pidgin) 4445, 4446

de Boer, C. 5126

de dicto 3564, 3827

de re 37, 38, 39, 3827

          attitudes 4456, 4461

          interpretation 34, 2046

de se 3564

          attitudes 4456

de Villehardouin, Geoffroi 1828

Declerck, Renaat 2662, 2827, 5795

decomposibility 5662

decreolization 5485, 5504

default values 1330

definite

          and indefinite tenses 2360,       5567

          tense 381, 4351

definiteness 3305, 3518, 3527, 5501, 6602

definitions of Aktionsart and aspect 260

deictic

          and anaphoric tenses 6256

          elements 3318

          function 4880

          shift theory 1981, 5366

deixis 4946

déjà (French) 402, 1953, 2055, 2568, 3147, 4535, 5599, 6099

Delbrück, B. 5743

Delplanque, Alain 902

demonstratives 2819

den’ (Russian) 6604

deontic operators 2271

depictive function 4808

depuis (French) 467, 5003

derived

          imperfective verbs 5277

          nominals 5576

Desclés, J.-P. 3187

desde que (Spanish) 3661

Destutt deTracy, A. L. C. 230

determination of the

          reference point 4351

          verb 3218

deux fois (French) 5802

devait + infinitive (French) 4383

deverbal

          adjectives 3023, 3833

          nominals 530, 775, 6059

          nouns 766, 1749, 2934, 4831

devoir (French) 1408

diachronic 128, 133, 136, 208, 313, 487, 528, 759, 760, 797, 798, 805, 856, 857, 859, 862, 863, 1393, 1458, 1507, 1573, 1592, 1616, 1618, 1650, 1652, 1653, 1698, 1699, 1700, 1863, 1871, 1905, 1906, 1911, 1912, 1960, 1984, 1988, 2009, 2018, 2062, 2264, 2291, 2311, 2453, 2621, 2628, 2640, 2671, 2674, 2677, 2727, 2796, 2843, 2849, 2854, 2875, 2913, 2942, 3155, 3168, 3169, 3190, 3198, 3225, 3279, 3286, 3306, 3313, 3339, 3352, 3397, 3453, 3591, 3611, 3622,

diachronic (continued)

          3744, 3747, 3769, 3776, 3841, 3933, 3990, 4198, 4201, 4249, 4250, 4300, 4301, 4335, 4342, 4358, 4363, 4417, 4426, 4427, 4539, 4553, 4597, 4645, 4649, 4744, 4745, 4757, 4797, 4823, 4836, 4840, 4878, 4945, 4947, 5011, 5017, 5049, 5064, 5066, 5132, 5201, 5228, 5249, 5329, 5354, 5391, 5393, 5411, 5427, 5477, 5482, 5526, 5725, 5753, 5836, 5848, 5969, 6030, 6122, 6123, 6139, 6345, 6457, 6532, 6611, 6612

          Afrikaans 1117, 6514

          Albanian 1401

          Arabic 939, 5042

          Arabic (Cairo) 2400

          Arabic (Early Literary) 5899

          Armenian 5924

          Azerbaijani 2940

          Balkan languages 221, 2908

          Balto-Slavic languages 5315

          Bantu languages 697, 701,        1134, 5089, 6290

          Bantu languages (Eastern) 700

          Bashkir 84

          Basque 4982, 5924

          Bhitrauti 2622

          Biblical Hebrew 2093, 2148,     2093

          Bulgarian 221, 678, 812,             1242, 1536, 5723, 5902,   5924

          Byzantine Greek 6057

          Catalan 5924

          Central Pomo 4098

          Chabacano 3671

          Chadic languages 6490

diachronic (continued)

          Chagga 1654

          Chinese (Wu) 3962

          Comanche (Shoshoni) 3945

          Comox 3280

          Creoles 519

          Crioulo 5916

          Dravidian languages 5672,       5673

          Dutch 234

          English 16, 82, 139, 763, 765,              804, 858, 893, 896, 1254,     1366, 1818, 1971, 2705,          2861, 3149, 3919, 4093,              4189, 4199, 4336, 4848,        4896, 5440, 5961, 6040,      6366, 6514, 6515, 6525

          English (African-American)       4742

          English (Black English) 1326, 4741, 5306, 5522, 5826,   5828

          English (Black American)            3894, 3897

          English (Caribbean ) 6459

          English (Liberia) 5502

          English (Newfoundland) 1052

          Estonian 2940, 5924

          European languages 1245

          Finnish 2707, 2743, 2744

          Finno-Ugric languages 5416

          Fon (Kwa) 6484

          French (Canada) 4739

          French 234, 251, 268, 573,       1134, 1509, 1558, 1667,   1673, 1680, 1870, 2013,          2630, 2940, 3003, 3965, 4693, 5311, 5924, 6078,          6376, 6484

          French-based creole          languages 1509

          Georgian 5315


diachronic (continued)

          German 16, 18, 23, 234, 2399,             3189, 3525, 3593, 3644, 3964, 4191, 5159, 5750

          Germanic languages 1204,        1242, 3170, 3588, 3963,   4191, 4200, 5410, 5428,          6097

          Ghanaian Pidgin English 2660

          Giha 699

          Gothic 1082, 1500, 3170,           3188, 3189, 3588, 6161

          Greek 838, 965, 1082, 1997,    2204, 2302, 2395

          Greek (Tsakonian Modern)       2400

          Guadeloupean Creole 2425

          Haitian Creole 6484

          Hausa 6493

          Hindi-Urdu 2619, 2620, 4168

          Hopi 269

          Hungarian 243, 5597

          Icelandic 5924

          Ilocano 4909

          Indic languages 2619

          Indic languages 2400

          Indo-Aryan languages 2620

          Indo-European languages           2519, 3042, 3889, 3963,   5109, 5454, 5820

          Indo-Iranian languages 1997, 4167

          Interior Salish languages            3280

          Irish Gaelic 2109

          Irish 1818

          Isle-de-France Creole 1134

          Italian 139, 489, 5763, 5924

          Japanese 5172

          Kanauri 5229

          Kannada 2400

          Kanuri 2834

          Kinyarwanda 699

diachronic (continued)

          Kirundi 699

          Kiswahili 697

          Kizeela 5089

          Komi (Zyrian) 5416

          Konkani 6361

          Kru languages1054

          Latin 243, 268, 316, 833,            1082, 1830, 1958, 2013,   3891, 4172, 4567, 5048,          5984, 6318

          Lezgian 2400

          Lithuanian 2202, 2793, 5924

          Lulubo 132

          Macedonian 812

          Malay 2630

          Maltese 5924

          Mantharta languages 232

          Marathi 2620

          Mauritian French Creole 284, 2426

          Mayan languages 5012

          Middle Egyptian 4997

          Middle English 210, 896,            2526, 3121, 4465, 4595,   5067, 6369

          Middle French 1570, 5780

          Middle Greek 3251

          Middle Hebrew  4510

          Middle High German 1500

          Modern Arabic 1211

          Modern Aramaic (Modern          Syriac) 2626

          Modern Eastern Armenian         2400

          Modern Greek 1536, 3251,        5924, 6057, 6361

          Modern Hebrew 2148, 2400

          Nigerian Pidgin English 1326,              1767

          Old Church Slavonic 994


diachronic (continued)

          Old English 894, 896, 2217,     2630, 3121, 4093, 4595,   4848, 4957, 6369, 6610

          Old French 1570, 3003, 5780

          Old High German 3188, 3189,              6161

          Old Russian 455, 456, 3992,     4400

          Old Syriac 5106

          Old Tamil 2495

          Old Turkic 84

          Palenquero 3671, 3884, 3885

          Panamanian Creole 46

          Panare 2069

          Papiamento 3671, 3884, 3885

          Persian 2400

          Quechua (Corongo, Peru) 2545

          Philippine Creole Spanish          3610

          Pidgin languages 3191

          Polish 234, 3998, 5746, 5924

          Portuguese 3610, 3662, 5924,              6318

          Portuguese-based creole               languages 2180

          Proto-Indo-European 269,           5454

          Quechua (Corongo) 2545

          Romance languages 268, 833,               960, 1276, 1830, 1832, 2374, 3393, 5410, 5637,          5984, 6278, 6423

          Romanian 243, 5924

          Russian 512, 580, 581, 993,     995, 2591, 2630, 2976,   3960, 3992, 3998, 4212,          4355, 5902

          Samana English 5828

          Sanskrit (Vedic) 1649

          São Tome Creole 5916

          Scottish Gaelic 2109


diachronic (continued)

          Semitic languages 2723, 5108,             5109, 5899

          Serbo-Croatian 5924

          Singhalese 2494

          Slavic languages 810, 812,        925, 1494, 1515, 1997,   2723, 3140, 3588, 3729,          3839, 3840, 3847, 4297, 4298, 4905, 5288, 5351,          5902

          Slovenian 5924

          Sorbian 5924

          South Dravidian languages       2494

          Southern Nigerian languages 1326

          Spanish 904, 1089, 3087,          3108, 3652, 3660, 3964,   4172, 4829, 5022, 5893,          5924, 6423

          Spanish-based creole        languages 2180

          Swahili 6346

          Swedish 3191

          Tagalog 4909

          Tamil 163, 2494, 2495, 5672

          Teda 2834

          Telugu 5407

          Tibeto-Burman languages           5229

          Tobagonian Creole  6563

          Tok Pisin 80, 5689

          Turkic languages 362

          Turkish 2400, 5392

          Turkic languages (Southern)   2227

          Udmurt 2400

          Ukrainian 234

          Uzbek 2940

          Vedic Sanskrit 5109

          Welsh 2400

          West Chadic languages 6493

diachronic (continued)

          West Germanic languages           3549

          Western Slavic languages           3215

          Yiddish 5823

diachronic linguistics 1100

diathesis 4166

Dichy, Joseph 5042

Dickens, Charles 783

Diesing, Molly 2560, 2782, 6455

Dik, Simon C. 6239

Dionysius Thrax 5013

directional inferences 4131

directionality 2976

discours (French) 440

discourse 57, 58, 225, 233, 348, 504, 511, 642, 666, 790, 873, 874, 964, 1011, 1128, 1150, 1354, 1528, 1546, 1547, 1633, 1816, 1833, 1837, 1838, 1885, 2063, 2096, 2101, 2105, 2200, 2329, 2542, 2543, 2559, 2561, 2565, 2629, 2631, 2632, 2688, 2894, 2952, 2965, 2994, 3305, 3375, 3421, 3635, 3656, 3697, 4034, 4123, 4132, 4335, 4452, 4589, 4732, 4976, 5051, 5175, 5265, 5267, 5273, 5526, 5332, 5480, 5544, 5558, 5887, 5910, 5911, 5946, 5957, 6030, 6113, 6121, 6237, 6238, 6241, 6243, 6244, 6310, 6352, 6377, 6381, 6382, 6383, 6617, 2542

          Afrikaans 1115

          Aguacatec 3905

          Arabic 97

          Austronesian languages 1697,             4908

discourse (continued)

          Basque 6453

          Belizean Creole 1714

          Biblical Hebrew 436, 3653,        3654, 3657, 4373, 4374

          Bulgarian 1431, 1804, 4388

          Chindo 4842

          Chinese 318, 2653, 3566,           6358, 6602

          Chuj 3890

          Cree (Montagnais) 1217

          Czech 5401

          Dusun (Tatana) 4611

          Dutch 658, 660, 1115, 4764

          English 78, 279, 350, 557,         658, 872, 947, 1128, 1155,   1156, 1157, 1321, 1350,          1358, 1396, 1473, 1506, 1519, 1546, 1547, 2536,          2540, 2542, 2543, 2562,              2702, 2767, 2959, 3305,        3412, 3422, 3636, 4000,      4002, 4271, 4561, 4562,   4617, 4863, 4907, 4927,          4974, 4975, 5174, 5263, 5264, 5272, 5553, 5629,          5657, 5662, 5670, 5799,              5800, 5943, 6396, 6404,        6496, 2542, 1155

          English (Nepali) 2378

          English (Singapore) 318

          Finnish 2310, 2311, 5998,        6404

          French 51, 440, 467, 502, 712,            739, 744, 745, 779, 912,        1025, 1087, 1321, 1431,          1671, 1857, 1887, 2955,              2961, 3379, 3454, 3636,        4204, 4496, 4865, 5553,      5567, 5703, 5799, 5800,   6233, 6248, 6251, 6254,          6326, 6378, 6380, 6396

          Fula 6104

discourse (continued)

          Ga’dang 1859

          German 350, 1506, 1887,           4252, 5270, 5272, 6179,   6396, 6596

          Germanic languages 4879

          Gothic 4879

          Greek 1506, 3605, 4901,             4958, 5466

          Haitian Creole 5625, 5626

          Halia 110

          Hebrew 1184

          Hixkaryana 1422

          Indo-Aryan languages 3863

          Indonesian 2702, 4841, 4842

          Italian 951, 3636

          Jamaican 4736

          Japanese 719, 3749

          Kalinga (Limos) 6442

          Kalinga (Upper Tanudan) 716

          Kalinga 2067

          Korean 3482

          Latin 610

          Macedonian 1804

          Mandarin 3572, 5553

          Manobo (Cotabato) 1708

          Mayan (Yucatec) 599

          Mazatec 5331

          Middle English 764

          Modern Greek 1506, 4561,        4562, 4563, 6187

          Navaho 4050, 4051, 5553

          Nyaboa 436

          Obolo (Benue Congo) 2

          Oksapmin 3444

          Old Saxon 4879

          Papiamentu 130

          Polish 3605, 6404

          Portuguese 4479

          Quechua 2649

          Romani (Vlach) 3863

                
discourse (continued)

          Russian 640, 1034, 2022,           4008, 5480, 5553, 5800

          Sanskrit 5670

          Sentani  2385

          Siar 1697

          Slavic languages 1031, 5906, 5906

          Spanish 44, 1519, 1788, 2139,            2269, 3683, 5491

          Spanish (Mexico, Central            America) 3134

          Swahili 1119, 1120

          Swedish 3605

          Swedish (Finland) 2310

          Tamil 2492, 2493, 5406, 5670

          Telugu 5406

          Thai 5301

          Toposa 5334

          Totonac 543

          Turkish 1804

          Yup’ik (Central Alaska) 5575

discourse

          analysis 1321, 2026, 2907

          domain theory 4974

          functions 1431, 4958

          models 1473

          processing 503

          relations 2101, 3414

          representation 246, 348,             4411, 5943, 6241, 6244

          representation structures           2540, 5035

discourse representation theory 349, 642, 660, 874, 1087, 1155, 1321, 1409, 1528, 1595, 2244, 2562, 2842, 2952, 2955, 2961, 2963, 3305, 3422, 4241, 4345, 4414, 4589, 4764, 4974, 4976, 5340, 5553, 5554, 5632, 5662, 5697, 5800, 6233, 6243, 6245, 6248

discourse

          structure 874

          types 874

discreteness 1033

displacement 4866

dissociative 5666

distality 158, 701

distance 1033, 1231, 3445, 3802, 5666, 5919, 5921, 5924, 5976

distancing 2825

distributivity 1492, 1533

Dokulil, Milos 5401

don (Nigerian Pidgin) 4446

donec (Latin) 4463

Dostoyevsky, Fyodor 2975

double past tense 3063

double-access sentences 34, 1377, 2066, 2081, 2082, 3361, 4258, 4453, 4461

Dowty, David 433, 761, 1041, 1344, 2597, 2736, 2762, 2763, 3418, 3620, 3813, 4292, 4555, 4902, 5073, 5441, 5884, 6307, 6440, 6551, 6552, 6553

Driver, S. R. 1330

Ducrot, Oswald 172, 4496, 6326

dum (Latin) 4463

duration 171, 465, 671, 672, 673, 818, 931, 2641, 2749, 3166, 3406, 3567, 4104, 4105, 4568, 4569, 4720, 5441, 5865, 6010, 6011

durative 3075, 3222

          aspect 106, 664, 1124, 1488,   2171, 3897, 4217, 4618,   6088

          constructions 6282

          forms 4837

          time adverbials 431

          verbs 2966, 6360


durativity 732, 763, 897, 985, 1091, 1211, 1343, 1533, 3276, 4215, 4486, 5560, 5582, 5662, 6547, 5560

duri (Macedonian) 5589

during (English) 3146

Durst-Andersen, P. 3960, 6549

duvitaparanam (Old Persian) 5956

dvita (Vedic Sanskrit) 5956

dynamic

          action semantics 2271

          aspect trees 5887

          event calculus 5662

          event semantics 4295

          logic 2357, 4292, 4293, 4294

          predicate logic 2207

Dynamic Semantics 5660

dynamic

          temporal logic 308, 4290, 4294

          tense logic 5662

          type theory 4414

dynamicity 763, 1091, 1431, 2769, 3483, 4187, 4486, 5560, 5965

dynamics 4242

e (Mandarin) 961

edo ke (Modern Greek) 4806

een (Okinawan) 5433

egressive aspect 763

ehe (German) 5633

embedded tenses 3330

en (Jamaican) 4736

en attendant que (French) 5464

Enç, Mürvet 3494, 4623

encore (French) 587, 1953, 2568, 3147, 6099

end (English) 1898

energeia and kinesis 49

energic suffixes 5899

enfin (French) 3700

English for Science and Technology 4501

ensuite (French) 3207

entonces (Spanish) 904

enunciation 1765, 3438

enunciative

          paradigm 5006

          system 1431

epic preterite tense 4880

episodic

          logic 874, 2687

          verbs 5958

epistemic modality 4388

epistolary tenses 3361

equation-solving approach 3491

ergative 3357, 5292, 5454

ergativity 24, 25, 300, 1385, 3535, 3568, 4816, 4996

erst (German) 3639, 3641

eshche (Russian) 2147, 4243

essential indexical 4640, 6306

estar (Spanish) 1779, 4570, 4829

estar + gerund (Romance languages) 1718

et (French) 3700

être (French) 1669

          + past participle (French)           1176, 6269

          en train de + infinitive    (French) 1392, 4433

evaluation 1834

event 3051, 3052

          analysis 1897

          calculus 3194, 6427

          descriptions 3408, 3822

          expressions 395, 1181, 5497

          nouns 2214, 5431

          phrase structure 6033

          reference 1247, 4651

          semantics 396, 3342, 4694

          sortals 5576

          structure 2647, 4154, 4814,     4996, 5873, 5879, 5946,   6034


event (continued)

          structures 652, 1385, 1828,      2201, 3608, 4571, 4584,   4591, 4819, 4820

          times 793

          type-shifting 6134

          types 5552

          utterances 5241

event-based approach 1520, 2500, 4579, 4764, 5458

eventive 4652, 5576

events 126, 222, 224, 246, 259, 282, 345, 382, 395, 397, 428, 516, 547, 548, 718, 871, 900, 943, 944, 945, 947, 1005, 1155, 1157, 1178, 1181, 1188, 1287, 1288, 1289, 1335, 1352, 1398, 1426, 1427, 1431, 1467, 1470, 1520, 1534, 1535, 1548, 1579, 1593, 1608, 1704, 1894, 1966, 2050, 2081, 2100, 2101, 2104, 2105, 2113, 2288, 2325, 2338, 2364, 2502, 2504, 2555, 2588, 2645, 2771, 2952, 2955, 3036, 3062, 3132, 3194, 3257, 3259, 3261, 3263, 3305, 3332, 3381, 3383, 3405, 3406, 3419, 3424, 3426, 3533, 3551, 3553, 3554, 3556, 3584, 3586, 3717, 3822, 4007, 4040, 4117, 4129, 4206, 4295, 4302, 4346, 4386, 4452, 4492, 4571, 4579, 4581, 4582, 4583, 4652, 4674, 4696, 4700, 4701, 4764, 4774, 4813, 4816, 4818, 4858, 4978, 4995, 5024, 5204, 5212, 5213, 5240, 5244, 5248, 5273, 5274, 5310, 5662, 5697,

events (continued)

          5736, 5781, 5838, 5851, 5874, 5875, 5877, 5880, 5883, 5884, 5885, 5906, 5913, 5935, 5947, 5988, 6033, 6064, 6133, 6135, 6137, 6148, 6190, 6212, 6213, 6215, 6219, 6234, 6313, 6389, 6426, 6427, 6598, 6629, 6630, 6631, 6632

eventualities 652, 1593, 2993, 3917, 5800

eventuality 539

ever (English) 1946

evidential 857, 1797, 3595, 5163, 5227, 5528, 6384

          and inferential 361, 1928,         5433

evidentiality 79, 141, 361, 692, 952, 1110, 1308, 1384, 1386, 1387, 1389, 1752, 1835, 1843, 1919, 1920, 1927, 1931, 1932, 2094, 2209, 2236, 2578, 3198, 3449, 4280, 4503, 5435, 5769, 6289, 6371, 6457, 6503, 6504

evidentials 93, 143, 178, 328, 366, 1496, 1561, 1792, 2238, 2346, 3154, 3446, 3758, 3863, 4043, 5380, 6448

Ewald, Heinrich1330

exegesis 370, 1549, 1880, 3934

exhortative sentences 4646

existential

          perfect 4040

          status 2881, 2882, 2883,            4396, 4397

          verb 5082

expanded tenses 577, 804, 2114, 2166, 2853

expectation contravention 4037

experienced

          past 4811

experienced (continued)

          speech 3669, 5680

experiential 1232, 2875, 3064

          iconicism 1687

          mode 3717

          perfect 372, 4108

expression of temporality 5345

extended

          form 1455

          now 6309

fabrikneu (German) 3123

Fanning, Buist M. 915, 5294, 5488, 5489

fe (Haitian Creole) 1574

feature theory framework 4956

Ferreiro, Emilia 5076

feugo (Greek) 5025

Fielder, Grace 3228, 5227

Fillmore, Charles 3478

finally (English) 3642

finish (English) 1898

finitive Aktionsart 4328

Flaubert, Gustave 546, 1430

Fleischman, Suzanne 1116, 3633

flexible type grammar 349

focal episodes 4974

focality 1602, 2875

focalization 1838, 4133, 5704

focus 846, 1356, 1714, 2290,             2308, 2509, 2630, 3358,   4511, 4976, 5531, 5708,          6442, 6510, 6547, 6556

          of referential concern 2820

focusing adjuncts 3149

for (English) 3146, 5170

formal

          logic 2804, 3437

          semantics 181, 348, 889,            1178, 3423, 4349, 5203

Forsyth, John 2730, 4665

Foulet, Lucien 5126


frame

          adverbials 40

          problem 5662

          time 1741, 2327

Franckel, J.-J.  5599

free indirect

          discourse 311, 767, 1295,          1414, 2300, 2482, 2829,   2942, 3379, 3609, 3931,          4489, 6257, 6326, 6564

          speech 1838, 6254

Frege 281, 4642, 6125

frequency 673, 822, 4182, 5801

frequentative aspect 1611, 4147, 4159, 4409, 6116

Friedman, Victor 5227

Friedrich, Paul 3726, 4362

from (English) 3146

functional

          approach 1021, 1490, 6183

          grammar 637, 639, 753, 1212,             1460, 1461, 1886, 2145, 2352, 2414, 2470, 2873,          4990, 6275, 6289

          lexicalist model 3974

          semantic field theory 5381

          semantics 2189

          syntax 1850

futur du passé 5029

futurate 4442

          conditions 2295

          constructions 77, 324, 390,       447, 464, 526, 527, 706,      771, 960, 1014, 1130, 1269, 1360, 1376, 1525,   1526, 1658, 1830, 1832,          1839, 1847, 1976, 2141, 2292, 2294, 2298, 2299,          2318, 2462, 2648, 2666,              2861, 2911, 3071, 3396,        3495, 3740, 3878, 4251,      4379, 4792, 4793, 5545,   5548, 5595, 5596, 6249,

futurate (continued)

          constructions (continued)          6327, 6336, 6350, 6420,   6616, 6636

          tenses 4349, 5662, 6256

future

          anterior tense 1672, 3539,        4056, 4748, 5029, 5684,   6566

          futurate tense 181

          imperfective tense 4062

          in the past 2047, 2861

          meaning 3442, 4058, 4738

          of the past 4383

future perfect tense 181, 432, 703, 815, 1093, 1222, 1776, 4107, 4889, 6256, 6376

future progressive tense 432

future tense 29, 40, 181, 856, 857, 862, 863, 1094, 1097, 1103, 1106, 1232, 1356, 1421, 1479, 1527, 1965, 2293, 2317, 2323, 2424, 2477, 2484, 2554, 2643, 2717, 2744, 2844, 3305, 3011, 3361, 3377, 3707, 3717, 3739, 3779, 3809, 3825, 3908, 4156, 4227, 4380, 4444, 4538, 4546, 4566, 4762, 4801, 4950, 5164, 5232, 5548, 5860, 5999, 6080,  6174, 6232, 6349, 6241, 6256, 6289, 6359,  6576

          Afrikaans 6119

          Albanian 1401

          Arabic (Cairo) 2400

          Arabic (Kuwaiti) 94

          Armenian 5405, 5924

          Balkan languages 221, 298

          Bambara 726

          Bantu languages 701, 1835

          Bantu languages (Eastern) 700

future tense (continued)

          Basque 5924

          Bengali 980

          Biblical Hebrew 3225

          Breton 4745

          British Caribbean Creole 1745

          Bulgarian 221, 678, 689,             1835, 3600, 4056, 4404,   5921, 5924

          Catalan 560, 5921, 5924

          Central Buang 3461

          Classical languages 5233

          Cree 4945

          Cree (Woods) 2188

          Danish 255

          Dutch 771, 933, 2299, 2814,    5921

          English 41, 77, 181, 432, 447,              526, 527, 536, 769, 771,        1064, 1066, 1080, 1101,          1205, 1250, 1283, 1284,              1347, 1376, 1397, 1527,        1664, 1725, 1831, 1835,      1937, 1938, 1969, 2033,   2267, 2298, 2299, 2639,          2777, 2778, 2945, 3305, 3495, 3864, 3880, 4081,          4176, 4250, 4339, 4379,              4471, 4973, 5069, 5070,        5196, 5237, 5670, 5921,      5961, 6336, 6424, 6435,   6609, 6616

          English (American) 3690

          English (British 2296, 6407

          English-based pidgin        languages 1969

          Estonian 4017, 4020, 5924

          Finnish 4017, 5921, 6009

          Finno-Ugric languages 3744

          Fongbe 3497


future tense (continued)

          French 268, 689, 1111, 1113,               1131, 1408, 1509, 1658, 1835, 1976, 2011, 2112,          2299, 2462, 2463, 2681,              3541, 3670, 3818, 4056,        4404, 5069, 5335, 5337,      5590, 5596, 5774, 5921,   5924, 5990, 6228, 6233,          6240, 6261, 6350, 6375, 6385

          French (Canada) 4739, 4740

          French-based creole          languages 1509

          German 296, 309, 782, 916,     933, 1101, 1111, 1113,   1219, 1222, 1449, 1544,          1735, 2043, 2399, 2456, 2742, 2814, 3312, 3525,          3541, 3589, 3782, 3806,              3878, 4251, 4832, 4859,        5158, 5159, 5160, 5237,      5279, 5750, 5921, 6175,   6178, 6309, 6385, 6492,          6636

          Germanic languages 19, 1969,             6097

          Giha 699

          Gothic 1082

          Greek 1082, 2381, 3738,             3970, 4096, 4202, 4356,   4430, 4750, 5233, 5362

          Greek (Tsakonian Modern)       2400

          Guyanese Creole 4215

          Haitian Creole 1861, 3497,        5623

          Hindi-Urdu 4352

          Hungarian 298, 1246, 5921

          Icelandic 5921, 5924

          Indic 2400

          Indo-Iranian languages 4167

          Irish Gaelic 2109

future tense (continued)

          Irish 3169, 4426, 5921

          Italian 458, 478, 4157, 5921, 5924

          Jamaican 4215

          Japanese 3932

          Jaqi languages 1835

          Kannada 2400

          Kikuyu 2881

          Kinyarwanda 699

          Kirghiz 6068

          Kirundi 699

          Konkani 6361

          Kumyk 1972

          Latin 268, 298, 1082, 1830,      1958, 4415, 4420, 4649,   4689, 4691, 5564, 5891

          Lezgian 2400, 5921

          Lithuanian 296, 2202, 3109,    4047, 5924

          Macedonian 3600

          Maltese 5924

          Mauritian French Creole 284, 2426, 6017

          Middle Dutch 1213

          Middle Egyptian 4997, 6222

          Middle English 210

          Middle Hebrew 4510

          Middle Watut 3461

          Modern Eastern Armenian         2400

          Modern Greek 558, 2437,           5924, 6361

          Modern Hebrew 2400, 5976

          Modern Hebrew

          Modern Persian 5148

          Niger-Congo languages 2455

          Nilo-Saharan languages 2455

          Norwegian 3589

          Ojibwa 4945

          Old Church Slavonic 542,           4202, 6088

          Old Czech 4300

future tense (continued)

          Palenquero 5354

          Panamanian Creole 46

          Papuan languages 5009

          Persian 2400

          Phoenician 3225

          Polish 1219, 2174, 5512,            5924, 5990

          Portuguese 1109, 5921, 5924,              5973

          Prakrit 3156

          Quechua (Argentina) 2172

          Quechua (Ecuador) 4385

          Romance languages 268, 960,               1144, 1830, 1832, 3393, 4649

          Romanian 239, 5924

          Romansh 1607

          Russian 2192, 2193, 2277,        3103, 3219, 5921, 6362

          Sango 5161

          Sanskrit 1835, 2348, 3156,       3453, 5670

          Sanskrit (Vedic) 4936

          Scandinavian 1234

          Scottish Gaelic 2109

          Sekani Beaver 2358

          Serbo-Croatian 5924

          Sicilian 1606

          Slavic languages 298, 924,        925, 3219, 5369, 6026

          Slovenian 5924

          Sorbian 5924

          Spanish (Caribbean) 5493

          Spanish (Chile) 5493

          Spanish (Colombia) 464

          Spanish (U.S. southwest) 2270

          Spanish 389, 390, 464, 560,     916, 1089, 1835, 2135,   2172, 2680, 3087, 3652,          4171, 4385, 5233, 5595, 5921, 5924, 6316, 6420


future tense (continued)

          Swedish 983, 1014, 1246,          6009

          Swiss German 1246

          Tamil 165, 5670

          Tswana 3286

          Turkish 2400, 5921, 6537

          Udmurt 2400

          Uto-Aztecan languages 5665

          Welsh 2400, 4745

          Western Slavic languages           3215

          Wintu 1835

          Yiddish 5921

          Yoruba 62

future tense

          and modality 255

          contrasted with futurate 390, 526, 527, 771

          for past time 3109, 3156

          for the past tense 2277

future tenses 4442

          time 3035

          time reference 41, 478, 513,     856, 1193, 1244, 1370,   2437, 2489

futurity 228

futurum exactum 4889

ga- (Gothic) 5257, 6416, 6554

gaan (Dutch) 2292

Galton, Antony 2500, 3722, 5781

game theory 2543

gan (Middle English) 764

Garey, H. B. 3487, 6260

Gary, Romain 1430

Gazdar, Gerald 3425

ge- (Dutch) 5809

ge- (English) 6122, 6123

ge- (Middle High German) 1290, 3773

ge- (Old English) 571, 3590, 3591

Gebert, L. 2934, 2981

gehen (German) 4946

general dynamics 6108

generalized conjunction 3425

Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar 2156

generalized quantifiers 3270, 5886

generaticity 898

generative semantic approach           1521, 3910

Generative Semantics 1292, 1342,               1526, 5789

generative-transformational model 5893

generic

          Aktionsart 5550, 5560

          sentences 431

genericity 2991, 5187

generics 523, 842, 843, 899, 1227, 1232, 1349, 1357, 2053, 2782, 3275, 3388, 3389, 3443, 4215, 4410, 4977, 5339, 5340, 5748, 6267

genus verbi 1860, 3188

Genzi Monogatari 4447

gerund 3392, 5718, 5964, 6058

gerundive

          nominals 5473, 5474

          relatives 5942

gerunds 345, 1000, 1424, 1612, 1785, 3529, 5755

gestalt perception 4919, 4920

ghe (Sakani) 2358

ghe- (Middle Dutch) 4680

ginomai (Greek) 5730

ginosko (Greek) 1701

given/new information 3637

Givón, Talmy 254, 1217, 3628, 4196, 4335, 5625

gleich (German) 1629

gnomic

          aorist 2210, 4440, 5153

          tenses 3361

go (English) 1831, 4946

go (Nigerian Pidgin) 4446

go + gerund (English) 609

goal-directedness 3562

god (Russian) 6604

Goldberg, A. 1814

Goldsmith, John 5301

Gonzales, Ambrose Elliott 4065

Gor’kij, Maksim 86

Government and Binding 6595

          Theory 2230, 2247, 2351, 2470, 4491

Gracq, Julien 4389

grammatical

          and semantic categories 824

          categories 212, 6433

grammaticalization 46, 94, 232, 254, 389, 697, 760, 857, 859, 862, 863, 883, 893, 894, 895, 1055, 1106, 1217, 1238, 1245, 1324, 1325, 1388, 1654, 1666, 1726, 1830, 1839, 2004, 2108, 2310, 2399, 2400, 2453, 2454, 2456, 2457, 2458, 2620, 2628, 2657, 3008, 3190, 3334, 3335, 3453, 3683, 3717, 4020, 4078, 4168, 4335, 4597, 4742, 4750, 4828, 4829, 4830, 5067, 5179, 5197, 5355, 5356, 5427, 5580, 5636, 5637, 5726, 5878, 5978, 6026, 6423, 6457, 6609

Greimas, A. J. 301

Grice, H. P. 2196, 2597, 3534

Grimes, J. E. 4000

Grimshaw, Jane 5576

grounding 159, 195, 289, 610, 909, 1030, 1031, 1032, 1034, 1087, 1157, 1217, 1418, 1506, 1633, 1697, 1804, 1833, 2096, 2099, 2100,
grounding (continued)

          2385, 2495, 2629, 2630, 2631, 2632, 2689, 3144, 3560, 4724, 4879, 5227, 5310, 5625, 5837, 5906, 5992, 6352, 6368, 6380, 6387, 6453, 6563

group action 3424

Guillaume, Gustave 270, 412, 741, 811, 999, 1392, 1952, 2515, 2516, 2718, 3167, 3456, 3460, 3681, 3734, 3825, 3974, 3992, 4432, 4433, 4719, 5069, 5312, 5422, 5429, 5516, 5617, 5706, 5805, 6023, 6102

Gunther, Wilfried 3887

guo (Chinese) 229, 986, 2230, 2428, 3064, 3614, 3764, 5422, 6358, 6412, 6540, 6607

guo (Mandarin) 2656, 2659, 3993, 5553, 5560

Gurevic, V. 1576

ha- (Hebrew) 4231

ha- (Moroccan Arabic) 941

haben (German) 3189

          + participle (German) 3431,     4508

          + zu + infinitive (German)          6621

haber (Spanish) 6577

          de + infinitive (Spanish) 6420

habere (Romansh) 1607

habitual 3228

          Aktionsart 5550, 5560

          aspect 63, 315, 482, 651, 756,              762, 763, 857, 859, 1015,     1052, 1060, 1232, 1238,          1266, 1267, 1527, 1839,              1971, 2527, 3389, 3447,        3533, 3682, 3887, 3897,      4159, 4215, 4363, 4959

          states 5662

habituality 4971

habituals 3388

Haiman, John 715

Hale, K. 1437

Hamblin, C. L. 2129

Hamburger, Käte 3697

Harder, Peter 2189

Harris, M. 5637, 6350

Harweg, M. 383

Harweg, R. 1846

Haspelmath, Martin 3150

Hatcher, Anna G. 1224

have (English) 256, 796, 1986,        2864, 4888, 5536, 5538,   6477

          + -en (English) 6541

he (Maori) 1051

head-driven phrase structure grammar 1620, 5606, 6365

hearsay tense 5741

hebben (Dutch) 2828

          + past participle (Dutch) 2809

Heger, K. 5029

Heinämäki, Orvokki 2540

Hengeveld, Kees 6239

Hermann, Eduard  6393

Herodotus 289, 294, 2010, 2507, 3256, 4985, 5025, 5365, 5729, 5730, 5731

Hettrich, H. 4985, 5090

Hetzron, R. 254

hier (German) 1628

Higginbotham, James 4571

highlighting 6442

Hinrichs, E. 658, 5884

histoire 440

historical

          imperfect 2002

          infinitive 5056

          mode 3717

historical present tense 61, 336, 435, 562, 618, 619, 620, 744, 849, 881, 951, 1058, 1689,

historical present tense (continued)

          1702, 1833, 1838, 1903, 1939, 1959, 2049, 2157, 2481, 2483, 2682, 2889, 2907, 3059, 3139, 3182, 3220, 3340, 3361, 3528, 3557, 3558, 3759, 3766, 3935, 4089, 4175, 4245, 4436, 4499, 4558, 4563, 4887, 5047, 5259, 5263, 5453, 5469, 5491, 5607, 5608, 5654, 5657, 5762, 5822, 5901, 5934, 6181, 6305, 6495, 6496, 6497, 6634

historical tense 3131

historical tenses 122

history

          of linguistics 1301

          versus discourse 3697

Hjelmslev, Louis 6149

hobn (Yiddish) 3786

Homer 287, 1935, 2476, 4246, 5025, 6456

homogeneity 763

Hopper, Paul J. 1804, 2385, 2495

Horace 6481

Hornstein, Norbert 1235, 1727, 2446, 4413

houto:s (Greek) 5510

hwa qatal (Syriac) 2903

hypersurcomposé tenses 4384, 6376

hypochoristic imperfect tense 5523

hypotaxis 3872

hypothetical 2794

hypotheticals 6375

i (Hawaiian) 5437

i (Tok Pisin) 5041

ici (French) 5863

identity of actions 4616


if-clauses 1065, 1094, 1347, 1565, 1758, 2306, 2530, 2780, 3472, 3864, 4012, 4380, 4546, 4863, 5423, 5721

il y a (French) 467, 5003

imeti (Old Church Slavonic) 4202

immance 2254

immediate past tense 2883

immer (German) 6596

imminent

          action 2881

          status 2882, 2883

imparfait 546, 959, 1562, 1766,      1806, 3668, 4145, 4148,   4228, 5215, 5218, 5594,          5703, 6079, 6256, 6375, 6378

          de rupture 2002, 2403

          historique 2002

          tense 2961

imperative 293

imperative mood 500, 595, 817, 1491, 2375, 2376, 3043, 3047, 3160, 3295, 3704, 3939, 3941, 4064, 4152, 4210, 4385, 4395, 4524, 4646, 4783, 4784, 5455, 5456, 5461, 5604, 5605, 5948, 6493, 6625

imperfect aspect

          Finnish 5283

          Greek 500, 967, 5465, 6291

          Indo-European languages           5457

          Latin 3041, 3976

          Slavic languages 3140

          Southern Caucasian languages            5457

          Svansk (Kartvelian) 5457

imperfect tense 476, 511, 1833,       1838, 3542, 5550

          Arabic (Old South) 4304

          Armenian 1722, 5924

imperfect tense (continued)

          Balkan languages 1795

          Basque 5924

          Biblical Hebrew 5230

          British Celtic 3244

          Bulgarian 1431, 1801, 2235,    2237, 2929, 3597, 4055,   4057, 4614, 5650, 5651,          5723, 5924

          Catalan 2081, 5924

          Dutch 685

          English 685, 976, 2015, 2081,              5188

          Estonian 5924

          European languages 5926

          Finnish 2708, 2996

          French 172, 407, 468, 469,       470, 471, 546, 685, 690,      800, 848, 890, 938, 981,          1113, 1318, 1431, 1562, 1873, 1952, 2002, 2015,          2159, 2206, 2235, 2403,              2473, 2726, 2842, 2892,        3349, 3457, 3458, 3459,      3543, 3668, 3743, 4055,   4057, 4140, 4145, 4146,          4228, 4229, 4496, 4574, 4865, 5215, 5218, 5523,          5651, 5703, 5704, 5706,              5773, 5804, 5844, 5924,        6022, 6171, 6233, 6248,      6258, 6297, 6363, 6364,   6375, 6385, 6466, 6469

          German 685, 1113, 1891,           4614, 5293, 6039, 6385

          Germanic languages 2081

          Greek 294, 2379, 2380, 2623,              3060, 3139, 4987, 5364, 5365

          Hebrew 2585, 4231

          Hungarian 5597

          Icelandic 5924


imperfect tense (continued)

          Indo-European languages           1722, 2985

          Italian 399, 472, 928, 1409,     1893, 2080, 2081, 2996,   3819, 5763, 5924

          Korean 4574

          Kuchean (Tocharian) 3244

          Latin 299, 2081, 3139, 3892,   3976, 3980, 4779, 5086,   5135

          Lithuanian. 5924

          Maltese 5924

          Middle Greek 3251

          Middle Persian 5513, 5514

          Modern Greek 3251, 5924

          Northern Sotho 3174

          Old Church Slavonic 679,           3317, 3320

          Old French 5393

          Old Irish 74

          Old Persian 5514

          Polish 5924

          Portuguese 2081, 4208, 5188,              5924

          Romance languages 1145,          1279, 2081

          Rumanian 5924

          Russian 995, 4614

          Semitic languages 2723, 2734,             4231

          Serbo-Croatian 5519, 5676,      5677, 5700, 5722, 5924

          Slavic languages 2723, 2750, 2985, 5133

          Slovenian 5924

          Sorbian 5924

          Spanish (American) 3731

          Spanish 416, 976, 1273, 1490,            1891, 2073, 2081, 2139, 2269, 3337, 3731, 4207,          5924

          Tocharian 3385

imperfect tense contrasted with the preterite tense 50, 334, 742, 743, 926, 1041,          1392, 1490, 1769, 1842, 1956, 2263, 2575, 2630, 2940, 2955, 3246, 4141, 4147, 4521, 4627, 4912, 4966, 5291, 5763, 5894, 6255, 6258

imperfective and perfective aspects 664, 665, 862, 1103, 1113, 1848, 2193, 2645, 2856, 3067, 3228, 3533, 3679, 47115418, 6041, 6248

imperfective aorist tense 1431, 1926

imperfective aspect 515, 648, 857, 1091, 1232, 1394, 2111, 2438, 2873, 2875, 3224, 3856, 5550, 5560, 6234, 6289

          Arabic 425, 3071

          Bulgarian 2858, 3599, 4232,    6192

          Chinese 1548, 5448

          Classical Arabic 3069

          Cree (Moose) 2795

          Creole languages 3873

          Dutch 347, 660

          English 763, 1521, 1525,            1548, 1569, 1839, 3423,   5414, 5448, 5553, 6632

          French 1839, 4722, 5123,          5553

          Fula 1666

          German 347, 1735

          Greek 5053

          Hebrew 1329, 2879

          Hiligaynon 6569

          Italian 1839

          Japanese 1548, 5448, 5450

          Kabyle (Berber) 4024

          Kalmyk 1602

          Kikuyu 2881, 2883


imperfective aspect (continued)

          Korean 1548, 5448

          Latin 921, 4026

          Latvian 5642

          Mandarin 3620, 5553, 6539

          Modern Greek 4364

          Navaho 5553

          Old English 4957

          Polish 3998, 4422, 5414

          Portuguese 1839

          Russian 418, 799, 864, 1785, 2806, 2863, 3103, 3834,   3998, 4232, 4522, 4524,          4525, 4526, 4528, 4530, 4737, 4780, 5104, 5430,          5553, 5688, 5755, 5761,              5788, 5965, 6025, 6194,        6264, 6500, 6501

          Slavic languages 1031, 1445, 2502, 2930, 3510, 4526,   6632

          Spanish 5146, 5221

          Tagalog 6569

imperfective aspect contrasted with perfective aspect 594, 622, 1238, 1253, 1313, 1579, 1759, 1804, 1821, 1863, 1996, 2000, 2023, 2191, 2234, 2500, 2569, 2630, 2786, 2975, 3043, 3192, 3246, 3306, 3796, 4059, 4222, 4226, 4364, 4433, 4526, 4531, 4532, 4625, 4646, 4871, 4966, 5144, 5461, 5742, 5892, 5924, 6416, 6630, 6631

imperfective paradox 259, 430, 652, 1344, 1525, 1526, 1683, 1883, 2177, 2521, 2538, 3418, 4581, 4894, 5203, 5560, 5662, 5884, 5967, 6286, 6426

imperfectivity 5952

imperfectivization 3847, 5021

implicature 893, 972, 1368, 1418, 1419, 1798, 2196, 4856

in (English) 3146, 5170, 6447

inception 3280, 4315, 4316, 5091, 6558

inceptive

          Aktionsart 1472

          aspect 4040, 5549

          constructions 4314

inceptivity 4318

inchoative

          Aktionsart 5560

          aspect 1499, 1586, 1827,            2460, 4194, 5431, 5812,   5813, 6415

          verb 693

          verbs 430, 2394

inchoativity 167, 1487, 2088, 2404, 2743, 3799, 4316, 4465, 5202, 5425

incremental theme 2763

indefinite past tense 3919, 5394

indexical operators 3768

Indexical Quantification framework 3418

indexical tenses 2046

indexicality 2820

Indian linguistics 892

indicative mood 2897

indices of truth 4620, 4621

indirect discourse 6163

indirect speech 289, 311, 314, 371, 470, 661, 929, 1097, 1099, 1148, 1153, 1355, 1375, 1414, 1450, 1451, 1740, 1838, 2202, 2280, 2286, 2300, 2301, 2415, 2662, 2690, 2706, 2767, 2783, 2827, 2829, 2962, 3060, 3316, 3495, 3548, 3837, 4464, 4477, 4636, 4899, 5035, 5150, 5247,

indirect speech (continued)

          5593, 5695, 5696, 6121, 6279, 6385, 6445, 6450, 6639

individual-level predicates 1002, 2186, 3235, 4824

individual/stage distinction 3950

individuation of actions 2123

ineffectual mood 6533

inertia worlds 4902, 5967

inference 4121

inferential 1913, 3445, 3721

          approach 5209

          mood 812

          perfect 2411

inferentiality 361, 2510

inferentials 4043

infinitive

          absolute 2670

          mood 838, 1000, 1567

infinitives 1, 29, 42, 221, 602, 714, 731, 799, 1317, 1796, 1798, 2010, 2183, 2425, 2476, 2851, 2908, 3396, 3529, 3660, 4750, 4779, 5016, 5056, 5134, 5348, 5687, 5718, 5731, 5732, 5822, 5948, 5978, 6083, 6452, 6542, 6601

information flow 956

ingressive

          Aktionsart 2999, 5560

          aspect 515, 763, 764, 2502,      3277

ingressivity 1487, 1563, 2976,         3276, 4316

injunctions 4356

inner tense 1162

instantaneity 5560

instants 2330

instructional approach 5703


intensional

          contexts 35, 39

          domains 1320, 4979, 4980

          logic 345, 2003, 2242

          theory of tense 37

intensive 3784

          Aktionsart 1934

interactions 157, 335, 372, 3889,   5560

intergressive aspect 1622

interlanguage 5832

intertextuality 4942

interval

          calculus 5270

          semantics 1179, 1181, 1526,   2129, 2676, 5959, 6111,   6551

intervals 1164, 2330, 3149

          and points 3722

intraterminal Aktionsart 5281

inversion 4375

ir + gerund (Spanish) 1717, 1718

ir + infinitive (Spanish) 390, 6420

ir a + infinitive (Spanish) 389

ire (Latin) 4946

irreal 3448

irrealis 278, 424, 857, 880, 1058, 1169, 1835, 1839, 2097,   2472, 2627, 2772, 2795,          3447, 3479, 4168, 5009, 5354, 5666, 6182, 6266,          6530

          and realis 953, 1697, 1757,      2185, 3461, 4097, 5008

Isidor 6392

ist + past participle (Old High German) 6161

iteration 8, 1623, 5287, 5759

iterative 3813, 4147

          aspect 215, 756, 857, 1488

iterative constructions 6060

iterativity 762, 1533, 1562, 3122, 3228, 3276, 3958, 4296, 4672, 4971, 5825, 5971, 6201

Ivanchev 3277

ja (Kristang) 5951

já (Portuguese) 1198

Jackendoff 1883, 2060, 4381, 4713, 6203

Jakobson 1845, 5401, 6377

jamais (French) 5182

JANUS system 2542

Jespersen, Otto 1845, 4668, 6228

jeszcze (Polish) 587, 4596

jetzt (German) 1628, 1629, 3964

Johanson, Lars 3338

John, The Gospel of 4436, 4738

Johnson, S. 5961

just (English) 705, 3477, 6138

just now (English) 6513, 6514

juz (Polish) 4596

jw (Ancient Egyptian) 4923

ka (Principense) 3887

ka- (Tagolog) 4771

kade (Macedonian) 5588

Kamp, Hans 348, 1528, 2569, 4589, 4764, 5632, 5697, 6270

kan (Afrikaans) 6119

kana yaf’alu (Classical Arabic) 4303

Kaplan, D. 4948

Kari, James 4049

Karttunen, L. 5795

Katny, Andrzej 6449

Kaufman, Terrence 3091, 4830

Kayne, Richard S.  3019

keep (English) 1898, 6205

Kenny, A. 1883, 4206

khoteti (Old Church Slavonic) 4202

Kiparsky, P. 336, 3935

Kiparsky, P. and C. Kiparsky 4652

Klein, Wolfgang 1243, 2007

Klinge, Alex 4379

Klug, W. 4787

Klum, A. 1731

knowledge representation 3582

ko (Fongbe) 3497

koga (Macedonian) 3228

kogato (Bulgarian) 5721

kogda (Russian) 3536

Kollewijn, Roeland Anthonie 6204

kom (Nigerian Pidgin) 4446

komma (Swedish) 1014

kommen (German) 4946

König, Ekkehard 4041

kontiru (South Dravidian) 2494

Kopecny, F. 6049

Kopitar, J. 5250

Korzybski, A. 2333

Krabbe, Tim 3157

Kratzer, Angelika 1041, 2782, 4237

Krifka, Manfred 1841, 3975, 4292, 5872

Kripke, Saul 4621, 6228

Kunihiro, Testuya 5436

Kurylowicz, Jerzy 894, 3252, 4167, 5401

kurz (German) 3123

l’Amour, Louis 5953

là (French) 5863

la-qad yafcalu (Classical Arabic) 3069

Labov, William 1116

lai (Middle Chinese) 5770

laizhe (Mandarin) 2428, 5770

Lakoff, George 3478

lambda calculus 4931

Landman, Fred 791, 2102, 6632

Langacker, Ronald W. 3395

language processing 1444, 4943

lapsed time 5309

laqad (Arabic) 1248

Larochette, Joe 3734

Larson, Richard K. 4233

lately (English) 1908, 5714


lattice

          approach 3975

          theory 1841, 3263, 3264,           3607

Lavid, Julia 872

le (Chinese) 229, 964, 969, 986, 989, 997, 1618, 2230, 2651, 2653, 2709, 3068, 3343, 3572, 3618, 3621, 3623, 3764, 3968, 4548, 5037, 5038, 5422, 5425, 5503, 5620, 5809, 6411, 6412, 6607

le (Mandarin) 2656, 2659, 3614, 5553, 5560, 5619

learning 458, 684, 1434, 1759, 2876, 3589, 3614, 4209, 4393, 4407, 4559, 4888, 4970, 5446, 5655, 5960, 6411, 6412

Lee, Kiyong  3491

Lefèbvre, Claire 6484

Leinö, Pentti 2451

Lengyel, Thomas E. 250

Letoublon, F. 5093

Levin, Beth C. 1511, 1899

Lewis, David K. 427

lexical

          aspect 2343, 2595, 2770,            3887, 4049, 4194, 4481,   4484, 5037, 5470, 5602,          6140, 6463, 6467

          categories 369

          decomposition 1019, 1270,       1524, 1526, 2220, 4818,   6307

          information 3051, 3052

          meaning 747, 751, 1293,            2265, 3278, 3508, 4353,   4531

          polysemy 4041

          properties 1574

          semantics 1799, 1812

          sensitivity 3753

lexical

          subordination 5630

          typology 4483

lexical-functional grammar 4397

lexicalization 5197, 6006

lexicon 473, 6135

lexicon-syntax interface 6134

limit 2071

linear time 3825

linguistic analysis 319

linking theory 5404

literature 86, 120, 264, 287, 288, 289, 294, 315, 320, 333, 389, 546, 574, 783, 784, 785, 819, 831, 840, 870, 890, 919, 1029, 1256, 1295, 1430, 1648, 1707, 1828, 1846, 1903, 1935, 1939, 1957, 1959, 2010, 2117, 2228, 2317, 2336, 2337, 2407, 2426, 2464, 2476, 2495, 2507, 2526, 2531, 2532, 2587, 2680, 2685, 2748, 2806, 2817, 2838, 2848, 2975, 3003, 3087, 3120, 3157, 3256, 3440, 3538, 3604, 3652, 3672, 3674, 3683, 3708, 3788, 4060, 4065, 4088, 4096, 4213, 4246, 4278, 4389, 4400, 4447, 4463, 4501, 4563, 4593, 4604, 4612, 4663, 4732, 4778, 4891, 4901, 4914, 4957, 4958, 5025, 5047, 5053, 5088, 5148, 5181, 5255, 5256, 5365, 5386, 5388, 5405, 5495, 5513, 5588, 5593, 5653, 5729, 5730, 5731, 5821, 5907, 5953, 5969, 6021, 6024, 6079, 6131, 6225, 6322, 6369, 6372, 6388, 6392, 6456, 6619

Lloyd, A. L. 5820, 6392

Löbner, Sebastian 235, 1315

local adverbials 3137

localism 770

localist

          model 6148, 6149

          theory 1090

localization 1886

localizer time 3637

Lodge, D. 315

logic 113, 118, 834, 1075, 1129,     1142, 1226, 1994, 2121,   2370, 5980

          of change 1521, 2954, 4292

          of time 2012

logical

          form 794, 795, 4302, 5339,      5699

          operators 6208

          representations 515

Lomonosov, M. V.  4089

longtemps (French) 674

lorsque (French) 4488, 5989

Machavariani, G. 5457

machine translation 433, 1510, 1511, 2030, 2031, 5565, 6588

mada (Japanese) 2772

maintenant (French) 3378, 4389

mais (Portuguese) 1198

mal (German) 2475

Malory, T. 4604

mana kartam (Old Iranian) 5514

manifest

          action 2881

          status 2882, 2883

Mark 849, 1689, 3558, 3759, 4499

markedness 214, 364, 421, 425, 664, 716, 1091, 1154, 1878, 1879, 1978, 2527, 2610, 3292, 3294, 3526, 3753, 4194, 4665, 4871, 5181, 5790, 5924, 5977, 6026

Martin, Robert 597

Maslov, Ju. S. 4532

mass and count nouns 756, 2570, 2575

mass-count distinction 259, 431, 4206

mathematical linguistics 1963, 2676

Mayerthaler, Willi 363

mè: (Greek) 2605

meaning postulates 3489

measuring-out 2363, 2763

medial verbs 2596, 2597

mediativity 2236, 3449

medieval linguistic thought 3133

mei (Chinese) 3764

Mel’cuk, I. 3974

méllo: (Greek) 5818

Mellor, H. 4601, 4620, 4791, 5571

mental

          models 1579

          predicates 826

mereological

          approach 1889

          change 4790

          relations 652

mereologically conceived set theory 6440

meta-mathematical structure 4991

metaphor 119, 460, 479, 490, 1055, 1654, 1835, 2068, 2469, 2591, 2641, 2657, 3545, 3873, 4435, 4829, 5028, 5357, 5855

metric tense 131, 726, 823, 857, 1024, 1093, 1097, 1103, 1106, 1231, 1232, 1847, 1976, 2125, 2691, 2692, 2881, 2882, 2883, 3131, 3717, 4771, 5412, 6256, 6513

Meyer, M. 1341, 1362

Michaelis, Susanne 1379

mid tham (Old English) 4463

mid thy (Old English) 4463

middle voice 4914, 5292

miine (Romanian) 242

Miklosic, F. 5250

Miko, F. 3137

Miloslavskij, I. G. 4661

Minco, Marga 1256

minimalism 774

Minimalist Program 4769, 6531

Minkowski, Eugene 3460

mirativity 1389, 3449

mise en relief 51

Mittwoch, Anita 5795

modal

          auxiliary verbs 241, 858,            1449, 2582, 2884, 3495,   3587, 4544, 5740, 5842

          interval logic 4294

          logic 4294, 5358

          meaning of the imparfait            1431

modality 91, 92, 157, 194, 210, 276, 768, 841, 846, 857, 1189, 1208, 1285, 1449, 1517, 1725, 1830, 1953, 2081, 2266, 2479, 2581, 2709, 2758, 2794, 2884, 3115, 3717, 3923, 4040, 4055, 4259, 4388, 4544, 4547, 4755, 4795, 5006, 5071, 5156, 5196, 5290, 5662, 5727, 5842, 5859, 5938, 6228, 6231, 6352, 6375, 6461

model theory 3997, 5034

model-theoretic

          account 4902

          semantics 181, 187, 1180,         3540, 3709, 4456, 4489,   6113

Moens, Marc 4902, 5187

moet (Afrikaans) 6119

Molendijk, Arie 5800

momentary verbs 2611, 2966

Montague

          grammar 348, 429, 807, 1524,             1526, 2218, 2539, 2542, 2571, 2572, 2573, 2574,          2736, 2881, 4157, 4587

          semantics 113, 761, 1177,         1525, 1527, 1529, 1967,   3304, 3356, 4160, 4161,          4162, 4163, 4164, 4241, 6288

Montaigne 3672

moo (Japanese) 2772

mood 12, 533, 857, 861, 1026, 1894, 2470, 3070, 3116, 3344, 3498, 3526, 3717, 3862, 4434, 4547, 5727, 5920, 6236, 6352, 6474

          Akøøse 2439

          Arabic 227, 1105, 4673

          Armenian 5924

          Australian languages 1484,      4004

          Avestan 3013

          Baltic languages 6180

          Bantu languages 1835

          Basque 2695, 5924

          Belhare 514

          Biblical Hebrew 2212, 2465,     2586, 4022, 4877, 4941,   5246, 6044

          Bulgarian 1835, 2754, 5921,    5924, 6354

          Catalan 560, 5921, 5924

          Cebuano 2057

          Chadic 1302, 6488

          Chukchee 4321

          Creole (Costa Rica) 4752

          Creole languages 4247

          Danish 2768

          Dutch 5921


mood (continued)

          English 4, 227, 727, 769,            1835, 2315, 2694, 2695,   2768, 3495, 4785, 5921

          English (American) 111

          English (Black English) 1298, 1326

          Estonian 883, 5924

          Finnish 5921

          Finno-Ugric languages 6180

          French 1408, 1686, 1835,          1874, 2253, 2938, 3672,   4028, 5314, 5921, 5924,          6468

          German 1206, 1222, 1736,        1875, 2110, 3106, 3808,   4240, 5842, 5919, 5921,          6309

          Germanic languages 3262

          Ghanaian Pidgin English 2660

          Greek 179, 386, 459, 1152,       1572, 1755, 2143, 2302,   2382, 2518, 3530, 4685,          4750, 4958, 4988, 5246

          Guinea-Bissau Creole (Bissau-   Bolama ) 5917

          Haitian Creole 437

          Hebrew 3925, 4835, 6348

          Hindi 6141

          Hungarian 5386, 5921

          Icelandic 5921, 5924

          Indo-European languages           3031, 3080, 3314

          Inuktitut 2944

          Irish 5921

          Italian 399, 5921, 5924

          Jaqi languages 1835

          Jawony 4004

          Kammu 5783, 5785

          Kannada 125

          Khalkha Mongolian 5784

          Kikerebe 695

          Kinyarwanda 695

mood (continued)

          Korean 3482

          Krio 2893

          Latin 563, 1651, 1830, 2008,   2187, 2382, 2847, 3976,   3977, 4149, 4415, 4692,          5058, 5476, 6018, 6505

          Latvian 3861

          Lega 692

          Lezgian 5921

          Limouzi 2839

          Lithuanian 825, 3861, 5924

          Maltese 5924

          Mangarayi 4004

          Manobo 1551

          Mixtec 521

          Modern Aramaic 2566

          Modern Greek 2695, 4565,        5691, 5924

          Ngalakan 4004

          Nigerian Pidgin 1326

          Northern Iroquoian languages             1867, 1868

          Northern Sotho 6150

          Old Babylonian 3537

          Polish 5924

          Portuguese 603, 5921, 5924

          Portuguese (Brazilian) 5156

          Quechua (Conchucos) 5702

          Romance languages 1830

          Romanian 5386, 5924

          Russian 727, 5386, 5921

          Sango 1462

          Sanskrit 1835

          Semitic languages 3319

          Serbo-Croatian 5924

          Slovenian 5924

          Sorbian 5924

          Southern Nigerian languages 1326

          Spanish 335, 560, 1835, 3664,            3732, 4942, 5621, 5921, 5924, 5981

mood (continued)

          Swedish 982, 1686

          Tagalog 4861

          Tamil 164

          Tsou 6592

          Turkic languages 5507

          Turkish 5921

          Vietnamese 1566

          Wintu 1835

          Yiddish 5921

          Yup’ik 6093

          Zulu 507

moods 2142, 2781

Moorem 3477

morphological markedness calculus 363

morphology 69, 145, 146, 367, 425, 566, 860, 991, 1199, 1720, 2078, 2466, 2793, 2836, 2995, 3040, 3285, 3526, 3752, 3838, 3868, 3895, 3896, 3900, 3902, 4087, 4098, 4214, 4224, 4377, 4416, 4429, 4490, 4520, 5116, 5229, 5351, 5407, 5415, 5439, 5442, 5445, 5447, 5451, 5673, 5681, 5747, 5815, 6093, 6535, 6584

movement of the reference point     5035, 5662

          in narrative 2540

multiplicity 763, 1562

must (English) 3233

na (Bantu) 6345

na (Kriol) 2169

na (Liberian English) 5502

nå (Norwegian) 1901

na (Swahili) 6346

na- (Russian) 5111

naa (Hausa) 2453

nachdem (German) 2504

narrative 114, 115, 314, 420, 476, 481, 504, 649, 657, 758, 784, 870, 874, 977, 1031, 1072, 1150, 1154, 1210, 1528, 1546, 1547, 1715, 1833, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1844, 1846, 1885, 1981, 2319, 2329, 2508, 2629, 2894, 3051, 3052, 3351, 3353, 3375, 3810, 3837, 3991, 4123, 4125, 4126, 4230, 4276, 4277, 4351, 4411, 4589, 4702, 4707, 4732, 4884, 4917, 4919, 4960, 5175, 5332, 5366, 5367, 5486, 5544, 5600, 5601, 5635, 5692, 5910, 5946, 6243, 6245, 6259, 6310, 6323, 6343, 6495, 6627

          African languages 902

          Afrikaans 1115, 1116

          Apache (Western) 341

          Apalai 3131

          Bantu languages 1835

          Basque 646, 6453

          Biblical Hebrew 446, 2404,        2916, 4373, 5579

          Bulgarian 1431, 1835, 4057

          Chinese 159, 964

          Classic Maya 2644

          Dutch 657, 660, 1058, 1115,    2899

          English 341, 789, 872, 923,      1098, 1155, 1156, 1157,   1321, 1506, 1545, 1546,          1547, 1632, 1692, 1835, 1839, 1904, 2540, 2587,          2689, 2994, 3051, 3052,              3412, 3655, 4500, 4920,        5174, 5263, 5272, 5326,      5328, 5487, 5527, 5653,   5662, 5670, 5680, 5799,


mood

          English (continued)

                 5952, 5953, 5954, 6368,      6396, 6404, 6496

          English (American English)       2889

          English (Nepali) 2378

          Finnish 3517, 5986, 6404

          French 51, 440, 646, 712, 745,            1025, 1087, 1295, 1304, 1321, 1431, 1692, 1769,          1835, 1839, 1869, 1887,              2404, 2630, 2899, 2907,        2914, 2961, 3051, 3052,      3349, 3376, 3379, 4057,   4146, 4229, 4612, 5201,          5218, 5567, 5680, 5707, 5709, 5799, 5846, 6020,          6245, 6271, 6396, 6465

          Fula 6104

          Ga’dang 1859

          German 1506, 1887, 1903,        5270, 5271, 5272, 5680,   6396

          Greek 280, 336, 819, 1506,       1959, 3117, 3139, 5787

          Haitian Creole 5625

          Halia 110

          Hausa 840

          Hungarian 3051, 3052

          Inca 3559

          Indo-Aryan languages 3863

          Indo-European languages           5934

          Inga 3560

          Inuktitut 2944

          Italian 472, 951, 1839

          Japanese 249, 3749, 3893,        5583, 5833

          Jaqi languages 1835

          Kalinga 2067

          Kalinga (Limos) 6442

          Korean 1011, 2688, 2689

mood (continued)            

          Latin 1959, 3117, 3139, 6021

          Malay 2630

          Middle French 3824

          Middle Irish 1959

          Modern Greek 1506, 2049,        4563

          Navaho 341

          Nawdm 2023

          Oksapmin 3444

          Old English 1688, 2630, 4957

          Old French 556, 1828, 1834,   2228, 5171, 6508

          Old Russian 4663

          Old Tamil 2495

          Palikur 1499

          Polish 3511, 6404

          Portuguese 338, 1839

          Quechua 2649, 3092, 3762

          Quechua (Pastaza, Peru) 720

          Romani (Vlach) 3863

          Russian 1576, 1800, 2021,        2404, 2630, 2806, 2848,   3517

          Sanskrit 1835, 5670

          Scottish Gaelic 3528

          Sentani  2385

          Slavic languages 3852, 5906

          Spanish 576, 646, 1835, 2139,            3092, 5491, 5527

          Spanish (Mexico) 3134

          Swahili 1119

          Swedish 61

          Tamil 2492, 2495, 5670

          Thai 5301

          Tokelauan 2624, 6311

          Toposa 5334

          Totonac 543

          Tupi (Guarayu) 4366

          Waorani 6472

          Wintu 1835

          Yagua 4605


narrative

          absolute tense 420

          function 5966

          mode 1677

          movement 874, 1087, 1157,     1431, 1546, 1547, 2559,   2645, 2961, 3636, 4589,          5216

          tense 1232, 2564, 5980

natural language

          processing 3481, 4116

          understanding systems 1593, 2542

natural logic 3580

naturalness 363

nazavtra (Russian) 3702

ne (Chinese) 1618

ne (Mandarin) 961, 3968

ne (Russian) 3705

near past tense 2883

Nebrija, Antonio de 4624

Nedjalkov, V. P. 3150

negation 87, 88, 126, 235, 247, 595, 602, 1008, 1118, 1119, 1121, 1198, 1253, 1321, 1365, 1368, 1485, 1526, 1556, 1801, 1967, 2229, 2329, 2604, 2611, 2772, 2830, 2861, 3124, 3286, 3295, 3358, 3451, 3455, 3479, 3504, 3704, 3705, 3720, 3764, 3887, 3899, 4023, 4101, 4184, 4511, 4596, 4646, 4838, 4867, 5169, 5205, 5206, 5209, 5213, 5214, 5217, 5530, 5647, 5793, 5795, 5799, 5800, 5866, 5985, 6214, 6239, 6613, 6625

negative 2684

          polarity 3358

          tenses 4183

negative-past expressions 1589

negatives 2650

netnou (Afrikaans) 6514

network models 3187

neural network 2876

neutral

          aspect 5553, 5560

          view 5268

          viewpoint aspect 5271

neutralization 484, 486, 560, 588,              1253, 1296, 1713, 1788, 3910, 5098, 5167, 6071,          6483

          of tense 1097

never (English) 1946, 5182

next (English) 6511

nicht (German) 6613

nicht mehr (German) 2576

no- (Latvian) 4523

noch (German) 16, 1489, 2576, 3147, 3639, 3641, 6099

nog (Dutch) 1315, 4855, 4856, 6152

nominal

          aspect 4983

          categories 4398

          constructions 6284

          predicate 3221

          predicates 2213

          reference 1812, 3258, 3265,    3266, 3267

          time 3467

nominalization 3973, 6629

nominalizations 345, 346, 347, 1181, 2338

nominals 775, 3405, 3410, 6059

non-actual system 1431

non-durative closure 6215

non-finite clauses 4628

non-future tenses 157

non-narrative discourse 872

non-past tense 1329, 1859, 2106, 2191, 4029

non-temporal interpretation of tense 2686

not…until (English) 5795

nou (Afrikaans) 6120

noun

          class 2214

          phrase 3077

noun phrases 775, 1309, 1403,       1404, 1595, 1841, 2443,   2539, 2928, 2934, 2949,          3466, 3975, 4235, 4236, 4462, 6602

          and temporality 509

nounou (Afrikaans) 6514

nouns 1660, 1661, 3717, 4849,       4850

          of time 670

now (English) 78, 801, 1545, 2310, 2951, 3984, 4794, 6285, 6513, 6514

now now (English) 6514

now parameter 40

nowadays (English) 2361

nu 219, 2826

nu (Swedish) 2310

null tense 1337

nun (German) 3964

nun (Greek) 1339

nun-paragogicum (Classical Hebrew) 2585

nunga (Toba Batak) 4185

nyt (Finnish) 2310

o (West Africa) 5503

Oaklander, L. N. 5571

objectiveness 6375

occasion 5622

Ockham, William of 4470

oft (German) 6613

Ogihara, Toshiyuki 38, 5402, 5796

oida (Greek) 1701

on (English) 3146, 5170, 6447

once (English) 6142

only (English) 1361

onomasiological analysis 2440

ontologies 552

ontology 2288

          of events 1470

          of situations 4206

opacity 1310

operators 515

optative mood 438, 2302, 2375, 2376, 3580, 5604, 5605, 6090

order

          of events 3419

          of process 3438

Ota, A. 1643, 4109

otkako (Macedonian) 3228

over (English) 3146

Paducheva, E. V. 2025

Palmer, F. R. 1067, 2661, 2665, 2668

Panah, S. Jahan 2966

Panini 4914, 5764

parable 5181

paraphrase 3906

paraphrastic analysis 445

Parsons, T. 6632

Partee, B. H. 4578, 5641

partializator operator 488

participles 280, 408, 411, 686, 877, 903, 949, 1147, 1165, 1254, 1443, 1569, 1645, 1941, 2032, 2038, 2119, 2148, 2272, 2311, 2355, 2526, 2609, 2648, 2799, 2810, 2902, 2913, 2941, 2997, 2998, 3030, 3071, 3110, 3331, 3332, 3313, 3442, 3814, 3833, 4094, 4168, 4254, 4462, 4467, 4509, 4510, 4538, 4650, 4677, 4680, 4750, 4804, 5000, 5019, 5049, 5055, 5400, 5405, 5649, 5688, 5718, 6050, 6162, 6413

particles 3111

partitive case 3082, 3083, 3955

partitivity 5875

pas (Dutch) 6152

passato prossimo 495, 951, 1759, 4703

passato prossimo/passato remoto alternation 5609

passato remoto 495, 951, 4060, 5763

passé antérieur tense 401, 477, 725, 1044, 1681, 5033, 6462

passé composé 172, 739, 744, 913,             959, 1086, 1176, 1314, 1431, 1562, 1575, 1671,          1835, 1838, 1984, 3349,              3402, 3464, 3698, 3699,        4057, 4722, 4999, 5206,      5215, 6230, 6245, 6376,   6378, 6465

          and imparfait 5550

passé simple 809, 959, 1562,             1667, 1674, 1766, 1806,   1833, 1838, 1984, 2245,          2700, 2961, 3254, 3829, 4141, 4145, 4174, 4865,          5035, 5204, 5212, 5215,              5594, 6079, 6145, 6171,        6245, 6326, 6378, 6380,      6438, 6599

          and imparfait 745, 4131,            4148, 5216, 5708, 6200,   6263

          and imperfect tenses 4913

          and passé composé 690, 713, 1078, 1681, 1983, 2914,   3214, 5656, 5749, 6248

passive 936

          mood 409

          voice 83, 408, 411, 439, 451,   615, 1092, 1942, 1985,   2045, 3111, 3196, 3237,          3720, 3724, 3833, 4167, 4285, 4306, 4308, 4309,

passive (continued)

          voice (continued)

                 4312, 4313, 4322, 4323,      4327, 4341, 4928, 5302,   5395, 5430, 5514, 5634,          5688, 5716, 5719, 6051, 6052, 6097, 6365, 5634

past

          anterior tense 681, 2173

          conditional tense 612, 3817

          definite tense 6078

          futurate tense 181

          indefinite 5227

          indefinite tense 1531

          meaning 3801

          participle 3439

past perfect progressive tense 432

past perfect tense 181, 309, 432, 1776, 3200, 4107, 4687, 5953

past progressive tense 432

past tense 34, 38, 181, 349, 381, 431, 474, 511, 1106, 1125, 1232, 1421, 1527, 1633, 1678, 1833, 1965, 2111, 2336, 2412, 2477, 2545, 2662, 2794, 2818, 2823, 2875, 3204, 3231, 3305, 3361, 3436, 3445, 3612, 3708, 3717, 3888, 4351, 4380, 4449, 4518, 4598, 4602, 4729, 4807, 4844, 4845, 4880, 4950, 4964, 5059, 5242, 5311, 5408, 5445, 5550, 5599, 5654, 5664, 5738, 5756, 5845, 5995, 6160, 6253, 6256, 6335, 6379, 6436, 6516, 6614

          Afrikaans 1116, 1117

          Algonquian languages 2796

          Arabic (Morocco) 4030

          Armenian 1722

          Arumanian 3793

past tense (continued) 

          Azerbaijani 4687

          Bagwalal 5847

          Balkan languages 5225

          Bantu languages (Kenya) 6344

          Basque 646

          Bengali 980

          Biblical Hebrew 2903

          Black English 5829

          Bulgarian 828, 1028, 1242,       1399, 2235, 4055, 4245,   5921

          Catalan 5921

          Cherokee 4811

          Cree (Moose) 2795, 2796

          Creoles 5829

          Croatian 2128

          Czech 3162

          Dutch 659, 663, 932, 1058,       1086, 2278, 2603, 2815,   2820, 4516, 4956, 5921,          6230

          English 162, 181, 279, 432,      663, 808, 858, 872, 1028,   1098, 1151, 1360, 1363,          1364, 1419, 1455, 1471, 1474, 1519, 1527, 1553,          1634, 1653, 1665, 1776,              1831, 1946, 2241, 2252,        2427, 2536, 2581, 2667,      2703, 3073, 3305, 3400,   3419, 3422, 3495, 3655,          3794, 3919, 4030, 4189, 4282, 4432, 4543, 4559,          4677, 4808, 4956, 4963,              4977, 5095, 5327, 5662,        5830, 5921, 5960, 6038,      6071, 6085, 6090, 6230,   6336

          English (American) 1583

          English (Black English) 5828

          English (British) 1583

          English (Singapore) 4712

          European languages 5926

          Finnish 3250, 5921

French14, 162, 172, 573, 646,          690, 707, 754, 959, 1086,   1151, 1562, 1597, 1625,          1669, 1675, 1679, 1680, 1746, 1766, 1806, 1847,          1870, 1887, 1984, 2235,              2418, 2568, 3003, 3214,        3254, 3349, 3350, 3668,      3747, 3828, 3965, 4055,   4145, 4148, 4174, 4278,          4432, 4754, 4807, 4808, 4865, 4912, 5076, 5123,          5152, 5206, 5213, 5215,              5567, 5594, 5921, 6078,        6079, 6090, 6171, 6230,      6233, 6248, 6258, 6262,   6269, 6271, 6326, 6357,          6376, 6378, 6380, 6385, 6438, 6465, 6599

          German 14, 308, 309, 752,        932, 934, 1107, 1222,   1255, 1735, 1887, 2052,          2119, 2205, 2388, 3118, 3432, 3434, 3435, 3593,          3794, 4251, 4808, 4860,              5243, 5578, 5862, 5921,        6094, 6175, 6179, 6373,      6385

          Germanic languages 1242,        3588, 3963, 4878, 5044

          Gothic 3065, 3588

          Gothic (Crimea) 3879

          Greek 4787, 4807, 4808, 6090

          Guyanese Creole 4215

          Hebrew 1329, 2216

          Hindi-Urdu 4168

          Hungarian 243, 4559, 5921

          Icelandic 5921

          Inca 3559

          Indo-European languages 438,             1722, 3963, 6611, 6612

past tense (continued)

          Inga 3560

          Irish 5921

          Italian 495, 928, 951, 3427,     4060, 4807, 5224, 5763,   5921, 6062

          Jamaican 4215, 4736

          Japanese 2703, 4282, 4459,     5172, 5434

          Japanese (Okinawan) 5433

          Khalkha Mongolian 532

          Kikerebe 695

          Kikuyu 2881

          Kinyarwanda 695

          Kirghiz 4497

          Lak 1923

          Latin 243, 3978, 3982, 4787,   4807, 4808, 6090

          Latvian 1611

          Lezgian 5921

          Lithuanian 1611, 2203, 3109

          Macedonian 3792, 3793

          Manchu 1007

          Mandarin 2656

          Marathi 1006

          Mauritian 6224

          Middle Irish 3948, 4831

          Modern Aramaic (Modern          Syriac) 2626

          Modern Hebrew 2119, 2472

          Mongolian 531, 2393

          Mongolian languages 2393

          Nguni 4768

          Ohrid Arumanian 3792

          Okinawan 5434

          Old Church Slavonic 1514

          Old Czech 4300

          Old English 3065, 4644

          Old French 1828, 1834, 3003,              6508

          Old High German 6390

          Old Japanese 5435

          Old Permian 285

past tense (continued)

          Old Russian 5316

          (Oru)Haya  1258

          Panamanian Creole English      (Bastimentos) 45

          Polish 3129, 3250, 3511,            5578

          Portuguese 3662, 3663, 4479,              4536, 5921

          Portuguese (Brazilian) 2703

          Quechua (Pastaza, Peru) 720

          Réunnionais Creole 876

          Romance languages 1832,          4536, 4808, 5224, 5637

          Romanian 242, 243, 755,            5127

          Russian 10, 624, 1035, 1781, 1785, 2119, 2277, 3103,   3427, 4355, 4759, 4760,          4803, 5688, 5755, 5848, 5921, 5969, 4803

          Samana English 5828

          Sanskrit (Vedic) 6202

          Scandinavian Languages 4956

          Serbo-Croatian 2755, 5163

          Slavic languages 3588

          Slovenian 5226

          Spanish 332, 463, 646, 1314, 1463, 1490, 1519, 1625,   2119, 3337, 3683, 4287,          5167, 5921, 6071, 6418

          Spanish (Argentina) 3290

          Spanish (Mexico) 3659

          Spanish (Puerto Rico) 4181

          Swedish 983

          Swiss German 4223

          Syriac 2903

          Tamil (Hemmige) 525

          Tatar 5847

          Tobagonian Creole  6563

          Tocharian 3385, 5933

          Turkic languages 362


past tense (continued)

          Turkish 736, 1665, 5435,           5921

          Turkmen 444

          Ukrainian 2119

          Uto-Aztecan languages 5666

          Vietnamese 5960

          Yiddish 2119, 3786, 5921

          Zulu 4765

past tense

          contrasted with present perfect tense 4223, 4602,        5417, 5609

          transportation 4543

past tenses 1671

pastness 2760, 4067

Pauliny, E. 5401

Peckham, B. 6044

Peirce, C. S. 4702, 5913

pendant (French) 465, 586, 671, 674

perception verb 1346

perfect

          and perfective 663

          as neither tense nor aspect       6187

perfect aspect 140, 511, 862,             1091, 1092, 1103, 1125,   1232, 1238, 1239, 1599,          2873, 2875, 3305, 3361, 3717, 4308, 4950, 5134,          5409, 5664

          Afrikaans 5005

          Azerbaijani 4687

          Bantu languages 6290

          Bengali 980

          Bhojpuri 2917

          Bulgarian 5921

          Catalan 5921

          Cebaari 4155

          Chukchee 4326

          Czech 1584

          Danish 3648

perfect aspect (continued)

          Dutch 2820, 5921

          English 127, 139, 261, 266,

                 372, 430, 763, 765, 872,1171, 1277, 1334, 1363,1464, 1584, 1776, 2360,3305, 3919, 4035, 4040,4105, 4155, 4209, 4260,4261, 4263, 4265, 4274,4448, 4648, 4972, 4978, 4979, 5203, 5303, 5304, 5553, 5662, 5921, 6106

          English (American) 1550

          English (Black English) 5306

          English (Trinidad) 6560

          Evenki 4323

          Finnish 5283, 5921

          French 220, 440, 1113, 5553,               5921

          German 934, 1113, 2211,           3802, 4238, 4313, 5862,   5921, 6179

          Germanic languages 2211,        5410, 5411

          Greek 271, 2375, 2376, 2377,              2735, 3936, 3937, 4992, 5604, 5605, 6333

          Guyanese Creole 4215

          Hawaiian 5437

          Hungarian 5921

          Icelandic 5921

          Irish 5921

          Italian 139, 5921

          Jamaican 4215

          Japanese 4263

          Kikuyu 2881, 2883

          Latin 2847, 3041, 3891, 4026,             5103

          Lezgian 5921

          Lithuanian 4322

          Maithili 2917


perfect aspect (continued)

          Mandarin 2651, 2652, 3778,   5038, 5553

          Marathi 2917

          Maya (Itzaj) 2627

          Modern Irish 2179

          Mongolian 531

          Navaho 5553

          Norwegian 451, 1901

          Portuguese 5921

          Provençal 3403

          Romance languages 1832,          5410

          Russian 3103, 5553, 5921,        6000, 6051

          Slavic languages 748, 2032

          Spanish 5921

          Swahili 1540, 4155

          Trinidadian Creole 6560

          Turkish 5921

          Uzbek 4285

          Yiddish 5921

          Zulu 506

perfect

          auxiliary reduction 5005

          chronologies 4974

          contrasted with imperfect           aspect 3783

          contrasted with imperfect           tense 1279, 4059, 5471

          infinitive 5134

          meaning 3463

          participle 4466

perfect preterite tense 5394

perfect tense 965, 1803, 2176,          4185, 4986, 5385, 5524,   6089

          Abkhaz 2510

          Akkadian (Old Babylonian)       3760

          Albanian 1147, 4634

          Arabic (Marocco) 940

          Armenian 3196

perfect tense (continued)

          Balkan languages 5132

          Basque 2282

          Berber languages 908

          Biblical Hebrew 446, 2670,        3094, 5085

          Bulgarian 161, 1028, 3795,       3797, 4057, 5720

          Chadic languages 2919

          Classical Armenian 3714

          English 408, 1028, 4068, 4263

          Estonian 6304

          Evenki 4306

          Finnish 2707, 2708, 6304

          French 4057

          Fula 908

          Galician 6184

          Georgian 3724

          German 1891, 5293, 6373

          Germanic languages 3963

          Greek 524, 2383, 2409, 3676,              3858, 3933, 4750, 5467, 5468, 5648, 6334

          Hausa 908, 2919

          Hungarian 4645

          Indo-European languages           3963

          Indo-Iranian languages 4167

          Italian 4634

          Japanese 2392, 4263

          Lakota 4634

          Latin 316, 2846, 3245, 3982,   4405, 4567, 4691, 5102,   5103, 5388

          Lithuanian 2045, 5396

          Macedonian 1911, 2416

          Mandarin 5036

          Modern Greek 4806, 5372

          Old Persian 2746

          Polish 5396

          Portuguese 6184

          Romance languages 1275,          2282, 6423

perfect tense (continued)

          Romanian 4301, 5720

          Russian 6052

          Semitic languages 2723

          Serbo-Croatian 2199

          Slavic languages 2723, 6002

          Sogdian 4602

          South Slavic languages 3601

          Spanish 98, 1891, 6151, 6423

          Swedish 152

          Turkish 5392

          Uzbek 4285

          Zulu 3034

perfective and imperfective aspects 214, 823, 1100, 1431, 1800, 2014, 2022, 2116, 5333, 5906, 5921, 5967

perfective aspect 330, 799, 857,       859, 1091, 1102, 1229,   1232, 1885, 2075, 2477,          2701, 2873, 2875, 2879, 2992, 3171, 3222, 4080,          4090, 4178, 4308, 5018,              5550, 5560, 5745

          Athapascan languages 4947

          Bagwalal 5847

          Balochi 25

          Bantu languages 1134

          Belorussian 4619

          Bengali 2059

          Bhitrauti 2622

          Bulgarian 2237, 2927, 3599,    6196

          Catalan 3019

          Chinese 4548

          Choctaw 772

          Czech 1584, 1841

          Dari 4503

          Dutch 660, 6105

                
perfective aspect (continued)

          English 763, 1160, 1378,            1472, 1519, 1584, 2555,   2705, 2927, 3171, 3833,          4169, 4188, 4192, 5553, 6632

          English (Australia) 1639

          English (Black English) 5306

          English (Trinidad) 6560

          French 1134, 1413, 3019,          5553, 5599

          Galician 4170

          Georgian 1230

          German 25, 1123, 1735, 4170

          Gothic 6416

          Greek 5053

          Hebrew 1329

          Hindi 1327, 2618, 4746, 4747

          Hindi-Urdu 25, 957, 2619,         2620, 4165, 5500

          Hungarian 1230, 1306, 1327,               3049

          Indic languages 2619

          Indo-Aryan languages 2620

          Isle-de-France Creole 1134

          Japanese 5172

          Kalinga (Upper Tanudan) 716

          Kanauri 5229

          Kikuyu 2881, 2883

          Kola Lapp 5812

          Latin 921, 4026, 4172

          Latvian 5642

          Lithuanian 2618, 3751, 5395

          Manchu 1007

          Mandarin 969, 2651, 2652,      2968, 3571, 5038, 5059,   5553

          Marathi 2620

          Margi 1230

          Modern Greek 2618, 4194

          Modern Irish 2179

          Native American languages       1413

perfective aspect (continued)

          Navaho 5553

          Palikur 1499

          Pashto 2618

          Pidgin Sign English 6507

          Polish 5512

          Portuguese 4169

          Rajasthani 2621

          Russian 87, 88, 325, 418, 590,             592, 640, 1034, 1035, 1406, 1581, 1781, 1784,          2335, 2611, 2618, 2941,              3103, 3706, 3751, 3834,        4032, 4222, 4619, 4760,      5553, 5634, 5812, 5965,   6050, 6301, 6362, 6550

          Serbo-Croatian 1123

          Slavic languages 1031, 1230, 2032, 2502, 2930, 6300,   6632

          Spanish 1316, 1519, 4172,       5146, 6577

          Spanish (American) 6578

          Tatar 5847

          Tibeto-Burman languages           5229

          Trinidadian Creole 6560

          Uma-Aria 2190

          Yoruba 5599

perfective aspect and imperfective aspect 3717

perfective

          function 4808

          mood 6625

          paradox 5500

perfective-aspect 5501

perfectivity 658, 936, 957, 1194, 1379, 2475, 2928, 4624, 5020, 5425, 5501, 5952

perfectivization 3847, 3986

performances 430, 4777, 5853

performative verbs 5231

periphrases 102, 216, 365, 489, 544, 1141, 1607, 2165, 3354, 3355, 4170, 5636

periphrastic

          constructions 604, 4015

          future tense 540, 541, 542,       643, 925, 1786, 1937,   2172, 2317, 2348, 2463,          3143, 3219, 3226, 3453, 3670, 3690, 6240, 6529

          perfect tense 1988

          progressive 2849

          tenses 1145, 1830, 1976,            2192, 3115, 4191, 4286,   4644, 4750, 5653, 6183

          verbal forms 2895

Perlmutter, D. 5176

Perry, John 4590

perspective 326, 496, 511, 870,       929, 951, 1072, 1631,   1838, 2422, 2899, 2961,          3020, 3374, 3375, 3378, 3802, 3860, 4025, 4331,          4431, 4924, 5155, 5707,              5708, 5906, 5907, 6219,        6237, 6238, 6298

          point 511

perspectivity 6106

          particles 6105

phasal

          aspect 4040

          noun 5223

          structure 5662

phase 187, 947, 1087, 1145, 2563, 3717, 3802, 3804, 4542, 4717, 5591, 5996, 6240

phase-aspect 3012

phases 2502

phenomenological analysis 5253

phrasal verb 607


pidgin languages 80, 81, 519, 1132, 1133, 1296, 1311, 1757, 1767, 1969, 2455, 2505, 2660, 2878, 3008, 3190, 3191, 3352, 4221, 4445, 4446, 5503, 5504, 5532, 5689, 5725, 6014, 6353

Pindar 2685

Pinkster, Harm 4180

Planudes 3365

Plautus 2800, 4946

pluperfect tense 474, 703, 873,        1232, 2823, 2875, 3413,   4351, 5151, 5460, 6256

          Albanian 1914

          Aymara 5741

pluperfect tense

          Bulgarian 1930, 3606

          Czech 1584

          Dutch 2820

          English 372, 872, 1098, 1370,              1584, 1905, 2360, 2633, 3350, 3412, 3422, 4040,          4518, 5191, 5276, 5662,              6335

          English (Nepali) 2378

          Finnish 2707, 3720

          French 1044, 1679, 1681,          1768, 3747, 5931, 6248,   6376, 6385

          German 752, 1222, 1705,           1706, 1735, 2211, 3521,   4349, 5922, 6175, 6385

          Germanic languages 2211,        3170, 4879

          Gothic 3170, 4879

          Greek 207

          Hungarian 2633

          Italian 3820

          Lak 1921

          Latin 562, 5984, 6024, 6481

          Macedonian 1914

          Middle English 1905

pluperfect tense (continued)

          Modern Greek 2434, 2435

          Old Church Slavonic 2117

          Old Russian 2117

          Old Saxon 4879

          Polish 3606, 3882

          Portuguese 4208, 5191

          Romance languages 5984

          Romanian 4301

          Russian 990, 2335, 4822

          Serbo-Croatian 5931

          Slovenian 5226

          Spanish 5741

          Spanish (American) 6419

          Swedish 152

plurality 118, 1209, 1533, 3380, 3381, 5244

plus-que-parfait tense 2961

po- (Russian) 2941, 2976, 4553

Pohlin, M. 5250

poimiine (Romanian) 242

point of view 1632, 1633, 1655, 4330, 4918, 4957, 5709, 5975, 6296, 6388, 6564

poka (Russian) 322, 323, 355, 1149, 6518

poka ne (Russian) 6518

polarity 5734

politeness forms 1835

Porter, S. 915, 2410, 5294, 5488, 5489

Porter/Fanning debate 915

possible world semantics 427, 1180, 1181, 1525, 2218, 4164, 4590, 6286

possible worlds 2544, 3825, 5696, 6228, 6585

post(ea)quam (Latin) 4649

posteriority 4136, 4624, 5511, 5962, 6462

potom (Russian) 2753

pour (French) 465, 5865

pragmatic hypothesis 1375


pragmatics 529, 895, 1104, 1155, 1177, 1248, 1375, 1528, 1726, 1802, 1825, 2026, 2093, 2767, 2953, 3413, 3482, 3561, 3919, 4124, 4128, 4129, 4160, 4240, 4264, 4265, 4271, 4421, 4490, 4750, 4873, 4989, 5214, 5217, 5557, 5567, 5715, 6418, 6470

Prague School 3294, 5401

predicate suffixes 3701

predication 1826

prendre (French) 6284

prepi (Modern Greek) 4368

prepositional phrase of goal 1342

prepositions 616, 1882, 2534,           3986, 5170, 6498

          of time 170, 173, 221, 426,       466, 734, 869, 1434, 1578,   2035, 3121, 3146, 3149,          3309, 3391, 3565, 3728, 4283, 4772, 4788, 5511,          5588, 5864, 5865, 6211,              6447, 6502

present perfect tense 1986

present continuous tense 5767

present futurate tense 181

present perfect progressive tense 432

present perfect tense 135, 181,        431, 463, 474, 1455, 1526,   1912, 2024, 2477, 2560,          2856, 3305, 3361, 3595, 3855, 3888, 4564, 5151,          5353, 5355, 5526, 5615,              5627, 5628, 5826, 6477,        6577, 6586, 6603

          Bulgarian 5843, 5902

          Catalan 1200, 2081

          Czech 1584

          Danish 1630


present perfect tense (continued)

          Dutch 663, 685, 1323, 1685,    2812, 2815, 2820, 3167,   4769, 6230

          English 43, 127, 181, 184,                       372, 413, 432, 663, 685,                  765, 808, 887, 893, 895,                    896, 905, 1171, 1200,                   1323, 1341, 1362, 1417,             1471, 1474, 1526, 1584,                       1652, 1653, 1685, 1775,                        1776, 1818, 1905, 1946,                  1947, 1948, 1985, 2081,                    2241, 2252, 2360, 2558,                          2560, 2655, 2669, 2719,                    2720, 2721, 2758, 2958,                          3101, 3107, 3167, 3204,                          3305, 3614, 3794, 3869,                    3910, 3912, 3919, 4027,                          4035, 4040, 4105, 4107,                          4108, 4169, 4209, 4239,                    4282, 4419, 4500, 4827,                          4873, 4998, 5001, 5096,                          5203, 5327, 5612, 5662,                    5843, 5918, 6165, 6230,                          6267, 6287, 6525, 6541,                          6641

          English (American) 1583

          English (Australia) 1676

          English (British) 1583

          English (Samana) 5827

          French 685, 1176, 1671,             2958, 3828, 4769, 5001,   6230, 6327, 6376

          German 308, 309, 312, 685,     887, 934, 1107, 1112,   1222, 1630, 1706, 5922,          6039, 6175, 6309, 6640

          Germanic languages 2081,        2211, 3170, 4191

          Gothic 3170

          Greek 2395, 3989

          Irish 1818

present perfect tense (continued)

          Italian 495, 794, 2081, 4703

          Japanese 4282

          Latin 2081, 3982

          Mandarin 3614

          Middle English 896, 1905

          Modern Greek 2434

          Norwegian 3577

          Old English 894, 896

          Old High German 4508

          Portuguese 2081, 4169, 4536

          Romance languages 1279,          2081, 4536

          Russian 5902

          Serbo-Croatian 2912

          Slavic languages 5902

          South Slavic languages 3602

          Spanish 332, 2081, 3337,          3665, 3731, 5141

          Spanish (American) 3731,         6419

          Swiss German 4223

present perfect tense contrasted with the preterite tense 184, 305, 808, 1028, 1454, 1713, 1759, 1852, 2373, 2815

present progressive tense 431, 432

present tense 34, 38, 349, 431, 859, 923, 1106, 1128, 1168, 1232, 1662, 2048, 2075, 2484, 2683, 2866, 2868, 2914, 2988, 2992, 3047, 3349, 3361, 3717, 3922, 4046, 4048, 4054, 4666, 4927, 4950, 5018, 5020, 5082, 5098, 5537, 5803, 5895, 6043, 6256, 6283, 6637

          Afrikaans 1116

          Arabic (Cairo) 2400

          Armenian 2054, 3004

          Azerbaijani 414, 5452

          Bantu Languages 5429

present tense (continued)

          Biblical Hebrew 2902

          Bulgarian 5921

          Catalan 2081, 5921

          Czech 3159

          Dravidian languages 5672

          Dutch 932, 1058, 3157, 5921

          English 278, 432, 557, 606,      882, 1063, 1101, 1128,   1170, 1360, 1410, 1465,          1663, 2081, 2149, 2427, 2548, 3201, 3384, 3399,          3495, 3770, 3772, 3794,              4559, 5327, 5607, 5662,        5738, 5921, 6085, 6576,      6634

          English (American) 3896

          English (Black American)            3895

          English (Black English) 4741

          Finnish 5921

          French 502, 739, 744, 809,       2256, 3399, 3459, 4754,   5567, 5921, 6171, 6375

          German 302, 303, 308, 309,     404, 932, 1101, 1222,   1642, 1735, 2194, 2197,          3688, 3794, 3878, 5242, 5921, 6175, 6179, 6636

          Germanic languages 2081

          Greek 370, 1959, 2062, 3740,              4210, 4738, 4750, 5091

          Greek (Tsakonian Modern)       2400

          Hebrew (Modern) 2400

          Hungarian 4559, 5921

          Icelandic 5921

          Indic languages 2400

          Indo-European languages           4757

          Irish 5921

          Italian 2080, 2081, 4157,           5231, 5921, 6634

present tense (continued)

          Kannada 2400

          Kazakh 5767

          Kikuyu 2881, 2883

          Kirghiz 6068

          Latin 922, 1959, 2081, 5047,   5086, 5389, 6024, 6481

          Latvian 2995

          Lezgian 2400, 5921

          Lithuanian 2995

          Marathi 2056

          Middle Irish 1959

          Modern Eastern Armenian         2400

          Modern Greek 337

          Modern Hebrew 5607

          Norwegian 240

          Old Armenian 2748

          Old English 4644

          Old French 1834

          Persian 2400

          Polish 5512, 5746

          Portuguese 2081, 5921

          Quechua (Pastaza, Peru) 720

          Romance languages 2081

          Romanian 240

          Ruanda 5429

          Russian 324, 624, 2535, 2611,             3103, 4762, 5921, 6301

          Sanskrit (Vedic) 2136

          Sanskrit 3004

          Serbo-Croatian 3182, 4053

          Slavic languages 924, 3177,     3707, 5369, 6300

          Slovak 4061

          Spanish 1274, 2081, 3770,       5167, 5921, 6576

          Swedish 1014

          Tamil 163, 2492, 5672

          Turkish 2400, 5921

          Udmurt 2400

          Ukrainian 3182

          Uzbek 4938

present tense (continued)

          Welsh 2400

          Yiddish 5921

present tense for the future tense 324, 3201, 3740

present-future tense 2109, 3624

presently (English) 5110

presupposition 3399, 3400, 3454, 4143, 4146, 5275

presuppositions 1075

preterite perfect tense 1312

preterite tense 3290, 3978

preterito imperfeito 2703, 2704

preterito perfeito 4169

preterito perfeito composto 1531

pri- (Russian) 1319

prikhodit’ (Russian) 6441

prin (apo)/pro (Modern Greek) 4806

prin (Modern Greek) 2589

Prior, A. N. 551, 1527, 4621, 4948

Priorean tense logic 4351

privative oppositions 4486

pro- (Russian) 2941

probability 2135, 6375

procedural expressions 2973, 4127

process 6286

processes 73, 259, 710, 1431, 1562, 1579, 2900, 3305, 3717, 4206, 4267, 4581, 4582, 4895, 5016, 5882

processing 4684

production 779

progressive aspect 262, 302, 310, 385, 413, 482, 483, 487, 488, 497, 511, 559, 577, 605, 644, 648, 652, 655, 762, 791, 857, 862, 1103, 1164, 1194, 1224, 1232, 1238, 1324, 1362, 1412, 1461, 1523, 1526, 1528, 1599, 1601, 1604, 1614, 1633, 1770, 1774,

progressive aspect (continued)

                 1809, 1865, 1943, 2054,      2081, 2099, 2100, 2124,   2297, 2324, 2358, 2408,          2549, 2634, 2805, 2856, 2947, 3148, 3292, 3298,          3305, 3418, 3522, 3691,              3717, 3856, 3869, 4014,        4072, 4216, 4502, 4573,      4697, 4755, 4793, 4812,   4955, 4981, 5072, 5112,          5119, 5199, 5319, 5322, 5414, 5533, 5545, 5560,          5664, 5711, 5857, 6424,              6591

          Arabic (Kuwaiti) 94

          Armenian 5924

          Basque 5924

          Breton 2511, 2512

          Bulgarian 5921, 5924

          Catalan 1718, 3354, 5737,        5921, 5924

          Chinese 5869

          Dioula 5177

          Dutch 347, 660, 663, 3242,       5921, 6146

          English 32, 53, 206, 223, 261,              270, 279, 412, 430, 490,        491, 493, 557, 663, 684,          763, 976, 1056, 1179, 1341, 1344, 1346, 1455,          1472, 1507, 1521, 1525,              1526, 1568, 1644, 1718,        1960, 1971, 2102, 2103,      2126, 2140, 2145, 2298,   2511, 2512, 2538, 2553,          2554, 2556, 2587, 2671, 2904, 2921, 3005, 3152,          3153, 3242, 3305, 3383,              3388, 3401, 3418, 3423,        3495, 3523, 3627, 3655,      3772, 3775, 3916, 3917,   4040, 4105, 4199, 4201,

progressive aspect (continued)

          English (continued) 4291,          4336, 4341, 4342, 4448,   4460, 4581, 4582, 4786,          4891, 4893, 4896, 4907, 5004, 5139, 5203, 5245,          5440, 5549, 5616, 5662,              5716, 5737, 5781, 5884,        5921, 6115, 6146, 6286,      6292, 6359, 6365, 6366,   6388, 6417, 6455, 6515,          6587, 6601, 6632

          English (American) 2026

          Estonian 5924

          Finnish 2447, 5921

          Fongbe 3497

          French 5921, 5924

          Frisian 1605

          German 155, 156, 347, 3153, 3242, 5838, 5921

          Germanic languages 1204,        1605, 4200

          Haitian Creole 3497

          Hungarian 3049, 3050, 3053,               4645, 5921

          Icelandic 5921, 5924

          Iranian languages 2849

          Irish 2728, 4427, 5921

          Italian 461, 489, 490, 493,        651, 684, 927, 3242, 3775,   5921, 5924,            6292

          Japanese 249, 3086, 3916,        3917, 4460, 5443, 5444,   5781

          Kikuyu 2881

          Korean 3066, 3086, 3125

          Korlai Creole Portuguese 1060

          Lezgian 5921

          Lithuanian. 5924

          Maltese 5924

          Mandarin 3619

          Mantharta languages 232

          Marathi 1060

progressive aspect (continued)Mayan 4830

          Middle English 2526, 4823

          Modern Greek 5924

          Navajo 4050, 4051

          Newari 3086

          Nigerian Pidgin 4445

          Northeast Turkic languages      134

          Northern Sotho 3679

          Old English 4378, 4823, 6610

          Old Irish 2728

          Palikur 1499

          Pennsylvania German 2671

          Polish 5924

          Portuguese 3078, 5921, 5924

          Principense 3887

          Romance languages 491

          Rumanian 5924

          Russian 3103, 5921

          Serbo-Croatian 5924

          Singhalese 2494

          Slavic languages 2502, 6632

          Slovenian 5924

          Sorbian 5924

          South Dravidian languages       2494

          Southern Interior Salish  3279

          Spanish 493, 976, 1718, 2139,            2140, 3078, 3775, 4570, 4829, 5737, 5838, 5921,          5924, 6418

          Tamil 2494

          Tatar 134

          Turkish 5921

          Welsh 2728

          Yiddish 5921

          Yoruba 63

pronouns 6527

properties 1562

prophetic present tense 6481

propositional attitudes 5603, 6235

propositions 1076

prospective 4742

prospective aspect 1080, 1232, 1376, 1654, 1655, 1832, 2313, 3171, 3497, 4582, 5177, 5670, 6106

prossimo (Italian) 6157

proximative aspect 2455

proximity 158

prze- (Polish) 2044

przychodzic (Polish) 6441

psych-predicates 3476

psych-verbs 4576

psycholinguistic approach 3763, 4658, 5440, 5487, 5701, 6277

psycholinguistics 1444, 4684

psychological

          approach 5219

          verbs 6147

pu (Mauritian Creole) 6017

pues (Spanish) 3830

punctual 3075, 3231

          verbs 1218, 1470, 1684

punctuality 1157, 1624, 4215

PUNDIT text processing system 4597

Pushkin, Aleksandr 5907, 6131

Pustejovsky, James 5016

qad (Arabic) 1248

qad yafcalu (Classical Arabic) 3069

qatal (Biblical Hebrew) 254, 3225, 4608

qilai (Mandarin) 2657

qotel (Biblical Hebrew) 3007

quamdiu (Latin) 4463

quand (French) 675, 4488, 5773, 5989, 6298

quando (Latin) 4463

quantification 259, 647, 901, 1312, 1321, 1425, 1562, 1621, 1812, 1857, 2763, 2948, 3257, 3261, 3265, 3330, 3380, 3533, 3607,

quantification (continued)

                 4007, 4147, 4163, 4235,      4345, 4410, 4451, 4454,   4455, 4548, 4591, 4764,          5531, 5794, 5852, 5860, 6138, 6214, 6215, 6217,          6219

          over eventualities 651

quantificational

          approach 6540

          domains 2887

          dynamic logic 4241

          theory of tense 4455

quantified tense logic 3326

quantifier 3472, 3619, 4081, 5802

quantifier-binding 4413

quantifiers 2542, 2543, 4578, 4949, 4953, 5886, 6211

quantity 763, 1595, 1810, 2442, 3258, 3266, 5883, 6247

Quasthoff, Uta M. 1846

que (French) 467

questions 971, 1843, 2739, 2777, 2778, 2945, 4008, 4347, 4706, 6295

questo (Italian) 6157

quickly (English) 1180

quit (English) 1898

quotation 4586

quotative 1232

qwm (Biblical Hebrew) 1487

ra- (Maroccan Arabic) 941

Rabelais, François 831

Racine, Jean 6078

ramified time 3825

rank 47

Rassudova, O. P. 5104

re- (Spanish) 3813

reading perspective 4529

realis and irrealis 4215

recently (English) 188, 1908, 5714, 6138

reduplication 406, 2062, 3065, 3280, 3612, 4423, 6569

Reed, S. 1375

reference 6272

          frame model 2327

reference point 44, 181, 375, 474,               1087, 1093, 1472, 1727, 1735, 2639, 2645, 2804,          2813, 2883, 2961, 3433,              3636, 3802, 3872, 4140,        4351, 4391, 4526, 4614,      5029, 5035, 5662, 6175,   6248, 6256

          in narrative 1472

reference time 57, 58, 1155, 1739, 1741, 2325, 2326, 2327, 2360, 2716, 2724, 3305, 3635, 3637, 3870, 4025, 4040, 4345, 4346, 4456, 4589, 5001, 5211, 5403

referential

          movement 6310

          theory of tense 4455

reflexive

          construction 3715

          ergative 3357

          verbs 5430

reflexivity 3058

region model 345

Reichenbach, Hans 44, 181, 185, 308, 928, 1087, 1093, 1155, 1348, 1364, 1472, 1527, 1727, 1756, 2076, 2077, 2325, 2360, 2461, 2542, 2813, 2881, 2883, 2959, 2984, 3081, 3376, 3686, 3734, 3919, 3947, 4107, 4139, 4141, 4349, 4354, 4494, 4668, 4923, 5208, 5210, 5211, 5301, 5543, 5939, 5941, 5967, 6146, 6228, 6273, 6287

relational grammar 4634


relative

          clause 1690

          clauses 1420, 1662, 2603,          2909, 3404, 4257, 4462,   5028, 5035, 5546

          tense 1093, 1097, 1120, 1330,             1964, 2564, 2785, 3071, 3717, 3779,            3856,             3968, 4180, 4391, 4456,              5038, 5152, 6553, 6567,        6568

          tenses 1364

relevance 662, 1481, 1935

          theory 4873, 5567

relevance-theoretic approach 4379

relexification 3610

remote future tense 699

remote past tense 2883

remoteness 1231, 3717

repeat (English) 1898

repetition 2903, 3276, 3938, 4254

repetitive Aktionsart 5724

reported

          discourse 6121

          speech 611, 1377

represented perception 758

restrictedness 6375

result states 4698, 5006

resultative 862, 1019, 1176, 2395,              2939, 4326, 5131, 5444, 5448, 6376, 6389

          constructions 106, 335, 451,    583, 748, 910, 957, 1232,   1818, 2045, 2274, 2282,          2392, 2840, 2875, 3046, 3058, 3066, 3086, 3196,          3197, 3253, 3551, 3613,              3684, 3694, 3724, 3769,        3778, 3855, 4279, 4285,      4306, 4308, 4309, 4310,   4311, 4312, 4313, 4322,          4323, 4324, 4325, 4327,

resultative (continued)

          constructions (continued)          5395, 5396, 5443, 5479,   5496, 5725, 5977, 6051,          6052, 6304

          meaning 4528, 4530, 4553,      5067, 5809, 6076, 6641

          perfect 372, 4040, 4108

          verbs 918

resultatives 857, 1776, 6370

resultativity 946

resume (English) 1898

resumptive aspect 4110

retrospective aspect 1832

Rgveda 1648

rheme 1562

Rigter, G. 137, 508, 1320, 4977

river of time 1013

Rohrer, Christian 477, 5029

Role and reference grammar 950, 6374

Rosch, E. 5227

Ruipérez, Martín Sánchez 1084, 2936, 4010

rupture 3033

Rgveda 2799, 2862, 4936, 5109, 5956, 6202

sa (Fijian) 204

sa (Principense) 3887

sa- (Tagolog) 4771

saai (Cantonese) 5870

sal (Afrikaans) 6119

salience 6352

          hierarchy 1034

Salkie, R. 1375

Salva, Vicente 4624

Sandström, Görel 5629

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis 1727

Sartre, J.-P. 6619

Sasse, Hans-Jürgen 4194

saturative Aktionsart 3000

Saussure, Ferdinand de 6094

scalar operator 2738

scenic present tense 3182

Schneider, W. 254

schon (German) 16, 1489, 2576, 3147, 3639, 3641, 6099

Schoorlemmer, M. 411

scope 349, 2830

          theory of tense 4462

scorso (Italian) 6157

se (Bulgarian) 1468

se (Fijian) 204

se (Spanish) 4386, 6579

se (Vietnamese) 4551

se mettre à + infinitive (French) 5202

Seiler 336

sein (German) 3189

          + zu + infinitive (German)          6621

seit (German) 4875

seitdem (German) 2504, 2504

sejchas (Russian) 3967

seldom (English) 4457

semantic representations 515

semantics 117, 175, 641, 1730,        1802, 2523, 2541, 2953,   2956, 3382, 3398, 3826,          5581, 5758, 6446, 6572

          and syntax interface 2076,        2077

          of speech 3234

semantics-pragmatics interface 4034

semelfactive

          Aktionsart 5560

          aspect 215, 5662

semi-imperfectives 3071

semiotic approach 574, 1266, 1267, 4702, 5976, 5977, 6095

semiotics 2020


sequence of tenses 33, 35, 39, 663, 780, 792, 929, 1097, 1099, 1146, 1167, 1355, 1377, 1417, 1527, 1662, 1760, 1794, 1795, 2042, 2081, 2083, 2530, 2600, 2601, 2602, 2639, 2662, 2690, 2817, 2827, 2856, 3205, 3328, 3361, 3548, 3865, 4149, 4268, 4411, 4414, 4439, 4451, 4453, 4455, 4456, 4461, 4607, 4908, 4950, 4961, 4962, 4976, 5035, 5402, 5662, 5693, 5739, 5776