Environmental Fluid Dynamics


All articles are at this Google Scholar Link


81) Wells, M.G., Kuai, Y and SHi Y. (2022) Thermal stratification in lakes determines where fish are, but also modifies how well acoustic telemetry can detect them. CMOS Bulletin

80) Flood, B., Girihagama, L., Wells., M.G., Semcesen, P., Valipor, R., Parker, S (2022) Investigating the water movements around a shallow shipwreck in Big Tub Harbour of Lake Huron: implications for managing underwater shipwrecks. Plos ONE https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0279862

79) L Girihagama, T Howell, M.G. Wells, J Li (2022) Physical circulation in the coastal zone of a large lake controls the benthic biological distribution. Water Resources Research https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2021WR030412

78) Lu, G., Wells, M.G., Van Stygeren I,  and R. Hecky. (2022). Intrusions of sediment laden fluids into density stratified water columns can be an unrecognized source of mixing in many lakes. Sedimentology pages 1- 18 DOI:10.1111/sed.12990

77) Brooks J.L., Midwood, J.D., Smith, A.  Cooke, S.J., Flood, B., Boston, C. M., Semcesen, P.,  Wells, M. G. (2022). Internal seiches as drivers of fish behaviour in lakes. Limnology and Oceanography. https://aslopubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lno.12055 

76) Wells M.G. and Troy C. (2022)  Surface Mixed Layers in Lakes.  Encyclopedia of Inland Waters., 2nd edition: Eds. Damien Bouffard and Marie-Elodie Perga. Elsevier, Pages 546-561, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128191668001262

75) Y. Kuai, N. Klinard, A. Fisk, T. Johnson, E. Halfyard, D. Webber, S. Smedbol, M.G. Wells (2021) Strong Thermal Stratification Reduces Detection Efficiency and Range of Acoustic Telemetry in a Large Freshwater Lake. Animal Biotelemetry 9 (1), 1-13

74) Flood, B. Wells M.G., Dunlop, E. and Young, J. (2021)  Vertical oscillations of the thermocline caused by internal waves modify coldwater fish distribution: results from a large stratified lake.  Journal of Great Lakes Research47 (5), 1386-1399

73) Semcesen, P. & Wells. M.G. (2021) Biofilm growth on buoyant microplastics leads to changes in settling rates: Implications for microplastic retention in the Great Lakes. Marine Pollution Bulletin 170, p.112573

72) Ridgway, M., B. McMeans and M. Wells. (2021) The Smoke, Canoe, and Tea lakes fish movement project in Algonquin Provincial Park. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Science and Research Branch, Peterborough, ON. Science and Research Information Report IR-22. 10 p. + appendix. http://harkness.ca/download/2266/ 

71) Ozersky, T., Bramburger, A.J., Elgin, A.K., Vanderploeg, H.A., Wang, J., Austin, J.A., Carrick, H.J., Chavarie, L., Depew, D.C., Fisk, A.T., S.E., E.K. Hinchey, R. L. North, M. G. Wells, M. A. Xenopoulos, M. L. Coleman, M. B. Duhaime, A. Fujisaki-Manome, R. M. McKay, G. A. Meadows, M. D. Rowe, S.  Sharma, M. R. Twiss, A, Zastepa  (2021) The Changing Face of Winter: Lessons and Questions from the Laurentian Great Lakes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JG006247 

70) Yang, B., Wells, M.G., McMeans, B.C., Dugan, H.A., Rusak, J.A., Weyhenmeyer, G.A., Brentrup, J.A., Hrycik, A.R., Laas, A., Pilla, R.M., Austin, J.A.,  PJ. Blanchfield, CC. Carey, M. M. Guzzo, N. R. Lottig, M. D. Mackay, T.A. Middel, DC. Pierson J. Wang JD. Young (2021) A New Thermal Categorization of Ice‐covered Lakes. Geophysical Research Letters, p.e2020GL091374.

69) Flood, B. Wells M.G.,  Midwood J.D., Brooks J., Kuai Y., Li, J. (2021) Intense variability of dissolved oxygen and temperature in the internal swash zone of Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. Inland Waters   https://doi.org/10.1080/20442041.2020.1843930 

68) Wells, MG., Li, J.,  Flood, B., Brooks, JL., Cooke, S.J., Kuai, Y., Semcesen, P. Midwood, J. (2021). Speed of sound gradients due to summer thermal stratification can reduce the detection range of acoustic fish tags: results from a field study in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 78(3), pp.269-285.

67) Wells MG & Dorrell (2021). Turbulence Processes Within Turbidity Currents. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 53 (reprint available here)

66) Heer, T., Wells, M.G. and Mandrak, N.E., (2020). Asian carp spawning success: Predictions from a 3-D hydrodynamic model for a Laurentian Great Lake tributaryJournal of Great Lakes Research

65) Yang, B., Wells MG, Li, J. & Young, J. (2020) Mixing,  stratification and plankton under lake-ice during winter in a large  lake: implications for spring dissolved oxygen level. Limnology and Oceanography 65 (11), 2713-2729

64) Flood, B.,  Wells, M.G., Dunlop, E. and Young, J.  (2020) Internal waves pump waters in and out of a deep coastal embayment of a large lake Limnology and Oceanography 65 (2), 205-223 

63) Choi, J.M., C.D. Troy, N. Hawley, M. McCormick, and M.G. Wells (2020) Lateral dispersion of dye and drifters in the center of a very large lake. Limnology and Oceanography 65 (2), 336-348

62) Heer T, Wells MG, Jackson PR, Mandrak NE. (2020) Modelling grass carp egg transport using a 3-D hydrodynamic river model: The role of egg retention in dead zones on spawning success. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 77 (8), 1379-1392

61) Davarpanah Jazi, S., Wells, M.G., J. Peakall, R. M. Dorrell, R. E. Thomas, G. M. Keevil, S. E. Darby, J. Sommeria, S. Viboud, and T. Valran (2020) Influence of Coriolis force upon bottom boundary layers in a large-scale gravity current experiment: Implications for evolution of sinuous deep-water channel systems. Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans 125(3), p.e2019JC015284.

60) Davarpanah Jazi, S. and Wells, M.G., (2020) Dynamics of settling-driven convection beneath a sediment-laden buoyant overflow: implications for the length-scale of deposition in lakes and the coastal ocean. Sedimentology 67 (1), 699-720

59) Heer, T., Wells, M.G. and Mandrak, N.E., (2019). Assessment of Asian carp spawning potential in tributaries to the Canadian Lake Ontario basin. Journal of Great Lakes Research45(6), pp.1332-1339.

58) S.E. Doka, M. Munawar,J.D. Midwood and  M.G. Wells (2018) State of Toronto and Region Ecosystem: Synthesis and highlights. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management  https://doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2018.1505355  

57)  Hlevca, B. , Wells, M.G., Font-Cruz, L., Doka, S.E., Portiss, R., St. John, M. and Cooke, S.J. (2018) Water circulation in Toronto Harbour. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management  https://doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2018.1500059

56) Veilleux, M.A.N., Midwood, J.D., Boston, C.M., Lapointe, N.W.R., Portiss, R., Wells, M.G., Doka, S.E., and Cooke, S.J. (2018) Assessing occupancy of freshwater fishes in urban boat slips of Toronto Harbour. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management  https://doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2018.1507530

55) Yang, B., Young, J., Brown, L., & Wells, M. (2017). High-frequency observations of temperature and dissolved oxygen reveal under-ice convection in a large lake. Geophysical Research Letters, 44. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL075373

54) Cossu, R., Ridgway, M. S., Li, J. Z., Chowdhury, M. R., & Wells, M. G. (2017). Wash-zone dynamics of the thermocline in Lake Simcoe, Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research.  43(4), 689-699 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2017.05.002

53) Marques, G.M., Wells, M.G., Padman, L. and Özgökmen, T.M. (2017). Flow splitting in numerical simulations of oceanic dense-water outflows. Ocean Modelling, 113, pp.66-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.03.011

52) Midwood JD, Gutowsky LFG, Hlevca B, Portiss, R., Wells, M.G., Doka, S.E. and Cooke, S.J. (2017) Tracking bowfin with acoustic telemetry: Insight into the ecology of a living fossil. Ecol. Freshw. Fish. 2017;00:1–12. doi:10.1111/eff.12340.

51) Rous A.M., Midwood J.D., Gutowsky L.F., Lapointe N.W., Portiss R., Sciscione T., Wells M.G., Doka S.E., Cooke S.J. (2017) Telemetry-Determined Habitat Use Informs Multi-Species Habitat Management in an Urban Harbour. Environmental Management. 59 (1), 118-128 – doi:10.1007/s00267-016-0775-2

50) Gong, C., Peakall, J., Wang, Y., Wells, M.G. and Xu, J. (2017). Flow processes and sedimentation in contourite channels on the northwestern South China Sea margin: A joint 3D seismic and oceanographic perspective. Marine Geology. 393, 176-193- doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2016.11.002

49) Davarpanah Jazi, S. and Wells, M.G., (2016). Enhanced sedimentation beneath particle‐laden flows in lakes and the ocean due to double‐diffusive convection. Geophysical Research Letters. 43 (20) – doi: 10.1002/2016GL069547

48) Peat T.B., Gutowsky L.F., Doka S.E., Midwood J.D., Lapointe N.W., Hlevca B., Wells M.G., Portiss R., Cooke S.J. (2016) Comparative Thermal Biology and Depth Distribution of Largemouth Bass and Northern Pike in an Urban Harbour of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 94(11): 767-776, doi: 10.1139/cjz-2016-0053

47) Veilleux M.A., Lapointe N.W., Webber D.M., Binder T.R., Blanchfield P.J., Cruz-Font L., Wells M.G., Larsen M.H., Doka S.E., Cooke S.J. (2016) Pressure sensor calibrations of acoustic telemetry transmitters. Animal Biotelemetry. 11;4(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s40317-015-0093-0

46) Chowdhury, M.R., Wells, M.G. and Howell, T., (2016). Movements of the thermocline lead to high variability in benthic mixing in the nearshore of a large lake. Water Resources Research, 52(4), pp.3019-3039. doi: 10.1002/2015WR017725

45) Hlevca, B., Doka, S. Cooke, S.  Midwood, J. and  Wells,M.G. (2015) Characterization of water temperature variability within a harbour connected to a large lake. J. Great Lakes Res. 41 (4), 1010-1023 doi: 10.1016/j.jglr.2015.07.013

44) Chowdhury, M., Wells, M.G., and Cossu, R.(2015) Observations and environmental implications of variability in the vertical turbulent mixing in Lake Simcoe J. Great Lakes Res. 41 (4), 995-1009 doi: 10.1016/j.jglr.2015.07.008

43) Cortés, A.,  Wells, M.G, Rueda, F., Fringer, O. and Arthur, B. (2015) Numerical investigation of split flows by gravity currents into two-layered stratified water bodies. Journal of Geophysical Research- Oceans 20 (7), 5254-5271 doi: 10.1002/2015JC010722

42) Sun, Y. and Wells, M.G. (2015) The application of life-history and predation allometry to population dynamics to predict the critical density of extinction. Ecological Modelling 312, 24  136–149 doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2015.04.026

41) Hlevca, B., Wells, M.G. and Parker, S. (2015) Amplification of long-period waves in shallow coastal embayments of the Great Lakes. Environmental Fluid Mechanics doi: 10.1007/s10652-015-9406-3

40) Cossu, R., Wells, M.G. and Peakall, J. (2015) Latitudinal variations in submarine channel sedimentation patterns: the role of Coriolis forces. Journal of the Geological Society 172(2), 161-174, doi:10.1144/jgs2014-043

39) Barth L., Sprules, G.A., Wells M.G. and Coman M.A. (2014) Seasonal changes in the diel vertical migration of Chaoborus punctipennis larval instars. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71,  1–10,  doi: 10.1139/cjfas-2013-0440

38) Cortés, A., Rueda F.,  and Wells M.G. (2014) Experimental observations of the splitting of a gravity current at a density step in a stratified water body.  Journal of Geophysical Research- Oceans 119, 1038–1053, doi:10.1002/2013JC009304.

37) Cortés, A., Fleenor, W., Wells M.G., de Vicente I., and Rueda, F. (2014) Pathways of river water to the surface layers of stratified reservoirs. Limnology and Oceanography 59(1), 233-250, doi: 10.4319/lo.2014.59.1.0233

36) Pernica, P.,  Wells, M.G. and Sprules, G.A.  (2013) Internal waves and mixing in the epilimnion of a lake affects spatial patterns of zooplankton in a body-size dependent manner. Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments 3: 279–294 DOI: 10.1215/21573689-2409149

35) Pernica, P.,  Wells, M.G. and MacIntyre, S.A.  (2013) Persistent weak thermal stratification inhibits mixing in the epilimnion of north-temperate Lake Opeongo, Canada. Aquatic Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s00027-013-0328-1

34) Wells, M.G. and Cossu, R. (2013) The possible role of Coriolis forces in structuring large-scale sinuous patterns in submarine channel/levee systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society A.  371 doi:101098/rsta.2012.0366

33) Sun, Y.,  M.G. Wells, Bailey, S.A. and Anderson E.J. (2013) Physical dispersion and dilution of ballast water discharge in the St. Clair River: Implications for biological invasions. Water Resources Research  I49(5),  2395–2407, doi: 10.1002/wrcr.20201

32) Peakall, J., M.G. Wells, Cossu, R., Kane, I.A., Masson, D.G., Keevil, G.M.,  McCaffrey, W. & Corney, R. (2013). Global (latitudinal) variation in submarine channel sinuosity: REPLY. Geology,41(5), e288-e288.

31) Cossu, R. and M.G.Wells (2013) The interaction of large amplitude internal seiches with a shallow sloping lakebed: Observations of benthic turbulence in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada  PLOS ONE 8 (3), e57444

30) Cossu, R. and M.G.Wells (2013) The evolution of submarine channels under the influence of Coriolis forces: experimental observations of flow structures. Terra Nova  25(1)  65–71

29) Pernica, P. and M.G. Wells (2012) Frequency of episodic stratification in the near surface of Lake Opeongo and other small lakes. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada. 7 (3-4), 227-237

28) Coman, M.A. and  M.G. Wells (2012) An oscillating bottom boundary layer connects the littoral and pelagic regions of Lake Opeongo, Canada. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada. Vol 47 No 3-4 pp 215–226

27) Coman, M.A. and  M.G. Wells (2012) Temperature variability in the nearshore benthic boundary layer of Lake Opeongo is due to wind-driven upwelling events. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 69:(2) 282-296, doi:10.1139/f2011-167

26) Cossu, R. and M.G.Wells (2012) A comparison of the shear stress distribution in the bottom boundary layer of experimental density and turbidity currents. European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids. 32,  70–79 doi:10.1016/j.euromechflu.2011.09.006

25) M.G. Wells, S. Bailey and B. Ruddick (2011) The dilution and dispersion of ballast water discharged into Goderich Harbor. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62  1288-1296  doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.03.005

 24) M.G. Wells, C. Cenedese and C.P. Caulfield (2010) The relationship between flux coefficient  and entrainment ratio  in density currents. J. Phys. Oceanog.  40(12) 2713–2727 doi: 10.1175/2010JPO4225.1

23) Cossu, R., M.G.Wells and A.K. Wahlin (2010) Influence of the Coriolis force on the velocity structure of gravity currents in straight submarine channel systems. Journal of Geophysical Research- Oceans 115, C11016 doi:10.1029/2010JC006208

22) Cossu, R., and M.G. Wells (2010) Coriolis forces influence the secondary circulation of gravity currents flowing in large-scale sinuous submarine channel systems.  Geophysical Research Letters., 37, L17603, doi:10.1029/2010GL044296.

21) L.A. Wyngaarden, K.M. Vogeli, B. Ciruna, T.P. Yamaguchi, D.Y. Stainier, G.R. Martin, M.G. Wells, A-K Hadjantonakis and S. Hopyan. (2010) Oriented cell motility and division underlie early limb bud morphogenesis. Development 137(15)  2551-2558, doi:10.1242/dev.046987

20) M.G. Wells and S. Parker. (2010)  The thermal variability of the waters of Fathom Five National Marine Park, Lake Huron.  J. Great Lakes Res. 36, 570-576 doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.04.009

19) M.G. Wells. (2009)  How Coriolis forces can limit the spatial extent of sediment deposition of a large-scale turbidity current. Sedimentary Geology, 218, 1-5  doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.011   

 18) M.G. Wells and P. Nadarajah. (2009)  The intrusion depth of density currents flowing into stratified water bodies. J. Phys. Oceanog. 39, 1935–1947.

17) M.G. Wells and L, Sealock, (2009) Summer Water Circulation in Frenchman’s Bay, a Shallow Coastal Embayment Connected to Lake Ontario,  J.Great Lakes Res., 35(4) 548-559  doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2009.08.009

16) M.G. Wells and J. S. Wettlaufer (2008). The circulation in Lake Vostok: A laboratory analogue study. Geophysical Research Letters. 35, L0350, doi:10.1029/2007GL032162

15) M.G.Wells, H.J.H Clercx and G.J.F. van Heijst (2008)  Mixing and dispersion in laboratory experiments of forced 2D turbulence. in “Transport in Geophysical Flows”. Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 744 Weiss, J.B. and Provenzale, A. (Eds.)  pp 115-132

14) M.G. Wells and J. S. Wettlaufer (2007) The long-term circulation driven by density currents in a two-layer stratified basin. J. Fluid Mech. 572,  37 – 58

 13) M.G. Wells,  H.J.H. Clercx, and  G.J.F. van Heijst (2007)  Vortices in oscillating spin-up. J. Fluid Mech. 573, 339 – 369

12) M.G. Wells (2007)  Influence of Coriolis forces on turbidity currents and their sediment patterns.  Particle-laden flow: from geophysical to Kolmogorov scales. ERCOFTAC Series, 11, B.J. Geurts, H. Clercx, and W. Uijttewaal (Eds.)   pp. 331 –344.

11) M.G. Wells and J. S. Wettlaufer (2005)  Two dimensional density currents in a confined basin Geophys. Astro. Fluid Dyn. 99 , 199-218

10) H.J.H Clercx , G.J.F. van Heijst, D. Molenaar and M.G. Wells (2005)  No slip walls as a vorticity source in 2D bounded turbulence. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 40, 3-21

9) S. Bryan, A. Cook, J. Evans, P. Colls, M.G. Wells, M. Lawrence, J. Jell, A. Greig and R. Leslie  (2004)  Pumice rafting and faunal dispersion during 2001-2002 in the Sothwest Pacific: record of a dacitic submarine explosive eruption from Tonga.  Earth Planet. Sci. Letts. 227 135-154

8) M.G. Wells  and G.J.F.  van Heijst (2004)  Dipole formation by tidal flow in a channel  in Shallows Flows.  Jirka, G.H. and Uijttewaal, W. (Eds.),  Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 63-70

7) M.G.Wells and G.J.F. van Heijst (2003)  A model of tidal flushing of an estuary by dipole formation  Dyn. Atmos. Oceans. 37 223-244

6) M.G.Wells and R.W Griffiths   (2003) The interaction of salt finger convection with intermittent turbulence. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (C3) 10.1029/2002JC001427

5) M.G.Wells and R.W Griffiths (2002)  Localized stirring in a field of salt fingers  Dyn. Atmos. Oceans. 35 (4): 327-350

4) M.G.Wells and B. Sherman  (2001)  Stratification produced by surface cooling in lakes with significant shallow regions    Limn. and Ocean. 46, 1747-1759

 3) M.G Wells., R. W. Griffiths, and J. S. Turner (2001)  Generation of density fine structure by salt fingers in a spatially periodic shear. J.  Geophys. Res. 106, 7027 – 7037.

2)  M.G. Wells, R.W. Griffiths and J.S. Turner (1999)  Competition between distributed and localised buoyancy fluxes in a confined volume. J. Fluid Mech. 391, 319 – 336.

1) A.M. Leitch, G.F. Davies and M.G. Wells (1998) A plume head melting under a rifting margin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 161, 161-177.


M.G. Wells (2001)  Convection, turbulent mixing and salt fingers.  Ph.D. Thesis, Australian National University.



Gravity current demonstration – 2014 – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FzW15qlWey4

BBC World service interview on underwater rivers  – 2014 – http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p025qhmy

Talk at KITP workshop 2022 – Influence of convective sedimentation on particle settling rates – https://youtu.be/ZP8DflV6UXI