PHLA10 Reason and Truth
Essay 1 Topics



Select one of the following topics to write your first essay on. Please remember to keep your essay between 1000-1200 words (no more, no less). A philosophy essay is concerned with presenting and analysing arguments using reason. You do not have to pick a side. If you choose to defend one side of the argument, it does not matter which side of the argument you pick. What matters is the quality of your analysis of the arguments and the quality of the new arguments you advance. I do not advise looking at secondary sources for such a short paper but if you are stuck secondary material can help generate ideas (but remember to cite all your sources, including of course Sober).



  1. Aquinas's Causal Arguments. The first two ways of Aquinas involve causation. Explain how these arguments work and consider their strengths and weaknesses. Assess their overall success in the task of proving that God exists.


  2. Divine Design. What is the structure of Aquinas's and/or Paley's argument from design? Explain how you think the argument works and consider its strengths and weaknesses. You might also consider the significance of Sober's claim that the argument is abductive rather than analogical.


  3. Evolution and Creation. What is the basic conflict between these two views? Explain how evolution forms an alternative hypothesis to the design hypothesis. What are some of the reasons that Sober considers in favour of evolution? Can you develop criticisms of them?


  4. The Problem of Evil. Carefully outline the argument against the existence of God which is based on the existence of evil. What kind of argument is this? How strong do you think it is? Why? Try to give an overall assessment of whether the argument works, defending your assessment with arguments.