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Peer reviewed

Click on a publication to download the PDF (if available) - Welch Lab members underlined.

Accepted/In press

Welch Jr., K. C., Myrka, A. M., Ali R. S., and Dick, M. F. The metabolic flexibility of hovering vertebrate nectarivores. Physiology. (Y-00001-2018).

Myrka, A. M. and Welch Jr., K. C. Evidence of high transport and phosphorylation capacity for both glucose and fructose in the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B. (CBPb-27875).


Skandalis, D. A., Segre, P. S., Bahlman, J. W., Groom D. J. E., Welch Jr., K. C., Witt, C. C., McGuire, J. A., Dudley, R., Lentink, D., and Altshuler, D. L. The biomechanical origin of extreme wing allometry in hummingbirds. Nature Communications. 8(1):1047.

Suarez, R. K. and Welch Jr., K. C. Sugar metabolism in hummingbirds and nectar bats. Nutrients. 9(7):743-759.

Groom, D. J. E., Toledo, M. C. B., and Welch Jr., K. C. Wingbeat kinematics and energetics during weightlifting in hovering hummingbirds across an elevational gradient. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 187(1):165-182.

Otálora-Ardila, A., Herrera M., L. G., Flores-Martínez, J. J., and Welch Jr., K. C. The effect of short-term food restriction on the metabolic cost of the acute phase response in the fish-eating Myotis (Myotis vivesi). Mammalian Biology. 82(1):41-47.


Velten, B. P., Ramenofsky, M., and Welch Jr., K. C. Altered expression of pectoral myosin heavy chain isoforms corresponds to migration status in white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Royal Society Open Science. 3(11):160775.

Otálora-Ardila, A., Herrera M., L. G., Flores-Martínez, J. J., and Welch Jr., K. C. Metabolic cost of the activation of immune response in the fish-eating Myotis (Myotis vivesi): The effects of inflammation and the acute phase response. PLOS ONE. 11(10):e0164938.

Hou, L. and Welch Jr., K. C. Premigratory ruby-throated hummingbirds, Archilochus colubris, exhibit multiple strategies for fueling migration. Animal Behaviour. 121:87-99.

Kolmann, M. A., Welch Jr., K. C., Summers, A. P., and Lovejoy, N. R. Always chew your food: Freshwater stingrays use mastication to process tough insect prey. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 283(1838):20161392.

Welch Jr., K. C., Péronnet, F., Hatch, K. A., Voigt, C. C., McCue, M. D. Carbon stable isotope tracking in breath for comparative studies of fuel use. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1365(1):15-32.

McCue, M. D. Welch Jr., K. C. 13C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 186(3):265-285.


Welch Jr., K. C., Otálora-Ardila, A., Herrera M., L. G., Flores-Martínez, J. J. The cost of digestion in the fish eating Myotis (Myotis vivesi). Journal of Experimental Biology. Journal of Experimental Biology. 218(8):1180-1187.

*Featured in "Inside JEB"

Hou, L., Verdirame, M., and Welch Jr., K. C. Automated tracking of wild hummingbird mass and energetics over multiple time scales using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. Journal of Avian Biology. 46(1):1-8.

*Editor's choice


Welch Jr., K. C. and Chen, C. C. W. Sugar flux through the flight muscles of hovering vertebrate nectarivores: a review. Journal of Comparative Physiology - B. 184(8):945-959.

Velten, B. P. and Welch Jr., K. C. Myosin heavy chain isoforms in the flight and leg muscles of hummingbirds and zebra finches. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 306(11):R845-851.

Chen, C. C. W. and Welch Jr., K. C. Hummingbirds can fuel flight completely with either exogenous glucose or fructose. Functional Ecology. 28(3):589-600.

*2014 Haldane Prize competition "Highly commended paper"

*Featured in the virtual issue: "Locomotion unplugged: how movement in animals is influenced by the environment."


Mahalingam, S. and Welch Jr., K. C. Neuromuscular control of hovering wingbeat kinematics in response to distinct flight challenges in the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Journal of Experimental Biology. 216(22): 4161-4171.

Welch Jr., K. C., Allalou, A., Sehgal, P., Cheng, J., and Ashok, A. Glucose transporter expression in an avian nectarivore: the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). PLOS ONE. 8(10): e77003.

Reiser, P. J., Welch Jr., K. C., Suarez, R. K., and Altshuler, D. L. Very low force-generating ability and unusually high temperature dependency in hummingbird flight muscle fibers. Journal of Experimental Biology. 216(12): 2247-2256.


Labonte, J. P., Welch Jr., K. C., and Suarez, R. K. Digestive performance in neonatal Southern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus helleri). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 89(8):705-713.

Welch Jr., K. C. The power of feeder-mask respirometry as a method for examining hummingbird energetics. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 158(3): 276-286.

Suarez, R. K., Herrera M., L. G., and Welch Jr., K. C. The sugar oxidation cascade: Aerial refueling in hummingbirds and nectar bats. Journal of Experimental Biology. 214(2): 172-178.


Altshuler, D. L., Welch Jr., K. C., Josephson, R. K., Cho B. H., Welch, D. B., Lin, A. F., Dickson, W. B., and Dickinson, M. H. Neuromuscular control of wingbeat kinematics in Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). Journal of Experimental Biology. 213: 2507-2514.


Suarez, R. K. and Welch Jr., K. C. Stoking the Brightest Fires of Life Among Vertebrates. In Cardio-Respiratory Control in Vertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects, eds. M. L. Glass and S. C. Wood. Springer-Verlag. pp 381-394. 

Suarez, R. K., Welch Jr., K. C., Hanna, S. K., and Herrera, L. G. Flight muscle enzymes and metabolic flux rates during hovering flight in the nectar bat, Glossophaga soricina: Further evidence of convergence with hummingbirds. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 153: 136-140.

Welch Jr., K. C. and Altshuler, D. L. Fiber type homogeneity of the flight musculature in small birds. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemal & Molecular Biology. 152: 324-331.


Welch Jr., K. C. and Suarez, R. K. Altitude and temperature effects on the energetic cost of hover-feeding in migratory rufous hummingbirds, Selasphorus rufus. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 86(3):161-169.

Welch Jr., K. C., Herrera M., L. G., and Suarez, R. K. Dietary sugar as a direct fuel for flight in the nectarivorous bat, Glossophaga soricina. Journal of Experimental Biology. 211(3):310-316.


Welch Jr., K. C., Altshuler, D. L., and Suarez, R. K. Oxygen consumption rates in hovering hummingbirds reflect substrate-dependent differences in P/O ratios: Carbohydrate as a 'premium fuel'. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210(12):2146-2153.

Welch Jr., K. C. and Suarez, R. K. Oxidation rate and turnover of ingested sugar in hovering Anna's (Calypte anna) and rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). Journal of Experimental Biology. 210(12):2154-2162.


Welch Jr., K. C., Bakken, B. H., Martínez de Rio, C., and Suarez, R. K. Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 79(6):1082-1087.


Darveau, C.-A., Hochachka, P. W., Welch Jr., K. C., Roubik, D. W., and Suarez, R. K. Allometric scaling of flight energetics in Panamanian orchid bees: a comparative phylogenetic approach. Journal of Experimental Biology. 208(18):3581-3591.

Suarez, R. K., Darveau, C.-A., Welch Jr., K. C., O'Brien, D. M., Roubik, D. W., and Hochachka, P. W. Energy metabolism in orchid bee flight muscle: carbohydrate fuels all. Journal of Experimental Biology. 208(18):3573-3579.


Ribble, D. O., Wurtz, A. E., McConnell, E. K., Buegge, J. J., and Welch, K. C. A comparison of Peromyscus home ranges using trapping and radiotelemetry data. Journal of Mammology. 83(1):260-266.


Macias, M. P., Welch, K. C., Denzler, K. L., Larson, K. A., Lee, N. A., and Lee., J. J. Identification of a new murine eosinophil major basic protein (mMBP) gene: cloning and characterization of mMBP-2. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67:567-576.

Other publications


Welch Jr., K. C. The energetic edge of existence. UTSC Commons Magazine, Fall.

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