Rome in the Mediterranean World

 

Major Phases in Roman History

 

 

The Monarchy (753-509BC)

 

753††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††† Foundation of Rome (April 21)

 

509††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††† Expulsion of Kings

 

Rome in Italy : (i) The Latins(509-338BC)

 

509††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Foundation of the Republic

496††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Battle of Lake Regillus

493†††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† Treaty of Spurius Cassius - Rome dominates Latin League

483-474†††††† ††††††††††††††† War with Veii

396††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††† Fall of Veii

390(387)††††† ††††††††††††††† Battle of Allia (July 15) - Gauls sack Rome

378††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 'Servian' Wall around Rome

340-338††† †††††††††††††††††† Latin Revolt - Latin League is dissolved

 

Rome in Italy : (ii) The Samnites (ca 343-280BC)

 

[343-341†††††††††††††††††††† 1st Samnite War]

326††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Roman alliance with Neapolis, Nuceria & the Apulians

326-304††††††† †††††††††††††† 2nd Samnite War

321††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Romans defeated at Caudine Forks

312††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Appius Claudius Censor - Via Appia & Aqua Claudia

298-290††††††† †††††††††††††† 3rd Samnite War

295††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††† Roman victory at Sentinum over Samnites, Gauls and Umbrians

290†† †††††††††††††††††††††††††† Peace with Samnites

283††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Boii defeated at Lake Vadimo

 

Rome in Italy : (iii) Pyrrhus (280-275BC)

 

280 †††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Romans defeated at Heraclia

279††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Battle of Asculum

278-276†††††††††††††††††††††† Pyrrhus in Sicily

275††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Pyrrhus defeated near Malventum, returns to Greece

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander and His Sucessors

 

356†††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† Birth of Alexander

338††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Battle of Chaeronea: Macedon defeats Athens, Boeotia etc

326†††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† Assassination of Philip: Alexander becomes

††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† †††††††††King of Macedon

334(May)††††† †††††††††††††† Battle of Granicus: Alex. begins conquest of Persia

333(Sept/Oct) †††††††††††† Battle of Issus

331(April)††† ††††††††††††††† Foundation of Alexandria

†† (Sept/Oct) ††††††††††††††† Battle of Gaugamela

331-324†††††† ††††††††††††††† Alexander conquers Persia, Bactria, NW India

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††† and returns to west

323†††††††† †††††††††††††††††††† Alexander dies at Babylon

 

ca323-285†††† ††††††††††††† Wars of the Successors

306††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Antigonus and Demetrius declare themselves kings

305†††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† Ptolemy,Lysimachus & Cassander also declare

††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††† themselves kings

301†††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† Battle of Issus: defeat & death of Antigonus

††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††† Settlement of 301:Emergence of Hellenistic monarchies

285†††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† Demetrius' last venture fails

 

Kings of Macedon,Syria & Egypt

 

Macedon††††††††††††††††††††† Syria††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Egypt††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

Antigonus I(306-1)†††††† Seleucus I Nicator(305-281) †††††††††††††† Ptolemy I Soter(305-283)

Demetrius I(306-283) Antiochus I Soter(281-61)††† ††††††††††††††† II Philadelphus(285-46)

Antigonus III†††††† †††††††† Antiochus II Theos(261-47)††† ††††††††††† III Euergetes(246-21)

Gonatas (276-39)†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Demetrius II(239-29) Seleucus II Callinicus(247-26)

Antigonus III Doson†† Seleucus III (226-3)††††††††† †††††††††††††††††† IV Philopator(221-03)

(229-1)†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Philip V (221-179)†† ††† Antiochus III The Great(223-187)††††† V Epiphanes(203-181)†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Perseus (179-167)††† †† Seleucus IV (187-75)†††††††† ††††††††††††††††† VI Philometor(181-45)

†††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††† Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-63) †††††††

†††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††† Antiochus V (163/2)

†††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††† Demetrius I (162-160)

†††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††† Alexander Balas (150-45)††††††††††††††††††† VII Euergetes (145-16)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

††††††††††††††

 

 

Rome in the Mediterranean

 

(i) Carthage (264-146BC)†††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††† (ii) Rome in the East (273-146BC)

 

273 Roman friendship with Egypt

264-241 1st War with Carthage

241†††† Peace Romans occupy Sicily

238-225 Romans occupy Corsica ††††††††††††††††††† 229/8 1st Illyrian War

& Sardinia

226†††† Ebro treaty

220†††† Via Flaminia

219†††† Hannibal storms Saguntum†††††††††††††††††† 219 2nd Illyrian War

218-201 2nd War with Carthage

218†††† Battles of Ticinus & Trebia

217†††† Romans defeated at Lake

Trasimene

216†††† Romans defeated at Cannae

Revolts of allies in Italy †††††††††††† ††††††††††† 214-205 1st Macedonian War

211††††† Romans recapture Capua &

Syracuse†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

210††††† Scipio (Africanus) lands in Spain

207†††† Hasdrubal defeated at Metaurus

206†††† Romans conquer Spain

204†††† Scipio lands in Africa

203†††† Hannibal recalled to Carthage

202†††† Roman victoy at Zama

201†††† Peace: Carthage becomes a

††††††††††††† 'client' state††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 200-196 2nd Macedonian War

197 †††† Spain organized as two provinces††† ††††† 197Battle of Cynoscephalae

††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††196Flamininus proclaims the

'liberationí of Greece

194†† Romans withdraw from Greece

192-189 War with Antiochus

191Antiochusdefeated at

Thermopylae, then at sea

189Antiochus defeated at Magnesia

188Treaty of Apamea

187†††† Viae Aemilia & Flaminia

184†††† Cato Censor

181-179 1st Celtiberian War

181†††† Revolt in Corsica & Sardinia

177-176 Sardinia pacified†††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††† 172-167 3rd Macedonian War

 

168††† Romans defeat Perseus

at Pydna; Delos becomes a free port

167††† Macedonia divided into four,Illyria

into three 'client' states

163††††† †† Corsica pacified

161††† Roman treaty with Jews

154-138 Lusitanian War

153-151 2nd Celtiberian War

149-1463rd War with Carthage††††††††††††††††††††† 147††† Macedonia becomes a province

146†††† Carthage destroyed†††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††† 146††† Corinth destroyed

††††††† ††† Africa becomes a province

143-133 3rd Celtiberian War

133†††† Fall of Numantia†††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††† 133††† Attalus III bequeathes

Pergamum to Rome

129††† Province of Asia established

††

The Crisis of the Roman Republic (133-31BC)

 

(i) The Gracchi and their Opponents (133-91BC)

 

133††††† Tiberius Gracchus murdered, attacks on his friends and followers

131†††† Lex tabellaria of Papirius Carbo establishes secret ballot for legislation

125†††† M Fulvius Flaccus proposes enfranchisement of Latins

123†††† First tribunate of Gaius Gracchus

122†††† Second tribunate of C Gracchus

121†††† C Gracchus murdered; his followers executed by Opimius

120†††† Trial and acquittal of Opimius

119†††† Marius tribune; voting reforms

112-106 War with Jugurtha in North Africa

104†††† Marius, consul II, reorganizes the army

103†††† Saturninus tribune: Lex de maiestate

100†††† Saturninus tribune (with Glaucia) murdered

98††††† Marius leaves Rome for Asia; first confrontation with

†††††††† †††††††††††††† King Mithridates

91†††† †† M Livius Drusus tribune murdered; outbreak of Italian

†††††††† †††††††††††††† Revolt ('Social War')

 

(ii) The Italian Revolt and the rise of the Military Men (91-60BC)

 

91††††† Massacre of Romans at Asculum

90††††† Further Roman reverses: Lex Julia

89††††† Victories of Strabo & Sulla

88††††† Sulpicius Rufus tribune; Sulla marches on Rome, escape of Marius

††††††† ††† Mithridates overruns Asia Minor, massacres many Romans and Italians

87††††† Cinna and Marius dominate Rome

87-83Sulla defeats Mithridates in Greece

83††††† Sulla marches on Rome

 

81-79†† Sulla Dictator; Pompey in Africa

78††††† Death of Sulla

78-77Aemilius Lepidus challenges Sulla's constitution

77-71Pompey in Spain

76-†††† Attempts to restore powers to tribunes

74-71†† Lucullus fights Mithridates

73††††† Licinius Macer tribune

70††††† First consulship of Pompey and Crassus; powers of tribunes restored

69††††† Lucullus invades Armenia

67††††† Pompey eliminates pirates from Mediterranean (Lex Gabinia)

66††††† Pompey receives command against Mithridates (Lex Manilia)

64-62Pompey in Syria and Judaea;Province of Syria established

 

(iii)†† Caesar and Gaul (ca 124-49BC)

 

NB††††† Earlier conflicts with Gauls in Italy and the Po Valley

†††††††† †††††††††††††† (ca 390-130) are not listed here.

 

124†††† War against Arverni and Allobroges in Gaul

121†††† Defeat of Arverni and Allobroges

†††††††† †† Via Domitia constructed in southern Gaul

118†††† Colony established at Narbo Martius

113†††† Cn Carbo defeated at Noreia by the Cimbri

105†††† Cimbri and Teutones destroy armies of Caepio and Mallius

†††††††† †††††††††††††† at Arausio

103†††† Marius, consul III, trains army in Gaul

102†††† Marius, consul IV, defeats Teutones near Aquae Sextiae

101†††† Marius, consul V, & Catulus defeat Cimbri near Vercellae

100†††† Birth of Julius Caesar

†††††††† †† Colony established at Eporedia in Gallia Cisalpina

 

63†††† †† Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus

61†††† †† Caesar governor of Further Spain

†††††† †††† Revolt of Allobroges

†††††† †††† Aedui appeal to Rome

60†††† †† Caesar returns from Spain

59†††† †† Caesar, consul I, receives Gaul(s) as his province

†††††† †††† Pompey marries Julia

58†††† †† Caesar defeats Helvetii and Ariovistus

57†††† †† Caesar defeats the Belgae and Nervii

56†††† †† Conference at Luca (Caesar, Pompey, Crassus)

†††††† †††† Caesar campaigns against Veneti and Morini

55†††† †† Second consulship of Pompey and Crassus (the 'First Triumvirate');

Caesar massacres Usipetes & Tencteri, bridges the Rhine and invades Britain

54(Sept) Death of Julia

†††††† †††† Caesar's second expedition to Britain

54†††††† Revolt in north east Gaul

53†††† †† Crassus defeated and killed by Parthians at Carrhae

†††††† †††† Unrest in Gaul, partly pacified by Caesar

52†††† †† Pompey sole consul

†††††† †††† Revolt of central Gaul under Vercingetorix

†††††† †††† Caesar repelled from Gergovia

†††††† †††† Siege of Alesia, surrender of Vercingetorix

51†††† †† Siege of Uxellodunum

50†††† †† Caesar organizes Gaul, crosses Rubicon into Italy,

††††††† ††††††††††††††† Civil War begins