University of Toronto at Scarborough

Douglas Alexander Bors

  • Ph.D. University of Toronto
  • M.A. University of Regina
  • B.A. University of Florida



Interests: Problems of abstract reasoning, intelligence, individual differences in memory and attention.

Dr. Bors's research activities might best be summarized as an exploration of the types of difficulties we encounter when attempting to solve problems involving abstract reasoning, an element of what might be called general intelligence. At one level, this concerns the sources of individual differences; at another related level, this bears on the identification of the factors responsible for the differential difficulty across problems of a similar type. Dr. Bors, his collaborators, and his students have begun addressing these questions with diverse research approaches: experimentation, correlational studies, psychometric explorations, and factor analysis.

Recent publications:


Bors, D. A., Gruman, J., & Shukla, S. (2010). Measuring tolerance of ambiguity: Item polarity, dimensionality, and criterion validity. Revue européenne de psychologie appliquée. 60,239 - 245.

Bors, D. A., & Vigneau, F. (2011). Sex differences on the Mental Rotation Test: An analysis of item types. Learning and Individual Differences. 21, 129-132.

Cassie, A.F., Vigneau, F. & Bors, D.A. (2009) What does the Mental Rotation Test measure? An analsyis of item difficulty and item characteristics. The Open Psychology Journal;, 2, 94-102.

Vigneau, F., Bors, D. A., & Dauvier, B. (2008). Besoin de cognition et tolérance à l’ambiguïté : généralisation d’un modèle trait-méthode à deux questionnaires de personnalité. In E. Loarer et al. (Eds.), Perspectives différentielles en psychologie. Rennes, France: Presses universitaires de Rennes.

Vigneau, F. & Bors, D.A. (2008). The quest for item types based on information processing: An analysis of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, with consideration of gender differences. Intelligence. 702-710.

Bors, D.A., Vigneau, F. & Lalande, A. (2006). Measuring the need for cognition: Item polarity, dimensionality, and the relation with ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 819-828.

Bors, D.A., Vigneau, F. & Kronlund, A. (2006). L'anxiété face aux examens : dimensionnalité, similitudes et différences chez les étudiants universitaires. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 38, 176-184.

Vigneau, F., Caissie, F. & Bors, D.A. (2006). Eye-movement analysis demonstrates strategic influences on intelligence. Intelligence, 34, 261-272.

Vigneau, F. & Bors, D.A. (2005). Items in context: Assessing the dimensionality of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 109-123.