Gordon Cleveland

Gordon Cleveland

Associate Professor, Teaching Stream


Emeritus Professor


Prof. Cleveland specializes in teaching economics and in researching the economics of child care and child care policy. He received a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Toronto. His thesis studied the factors which affect the choice of different types of child care arrangements for preschool children by employed mothers, and he has published a number of articles in professional journals on related subjects.

In addition to teaching Introductory Economics (using calculus), Prof. Cleveland teaches courses on Intermediate Microeconomics, and on the Economics of the Internet and E-Commerce.

Professional Experience:

Full-time faculty, University of Toronto Scarborough (1992-present)

Economist for Special Parliamentary Committee on Child Care (1986-87), Consultant

Economist to federal, provincial and municipal governments and nonprofit organizations across Canada (1985-continuing)


Research Interests: 

The economics and politics of early childhood education and care in Canada and Australia. Measuring the affordability of early childhood education and care. The determinants of quality in child care centres. The effects of early childhood education and care on children and families, including the employment of mothers of young children.

Teaching Interests: 

Economics of the Family, Women and Work
Introductory Microeconomics – A Mathematical Approach


“Early Childhood Education and Care Policy In Canada: Availability, Affordability And Quality”  (in press) Our Schools, Our Selves

“Econometrics and the Study Of Early Childhood: A Guide For Consumers “ (in press) Chapter 19 in the SAGE Handbook of Early Childhood Research

“Variations in the Availability and Quality of Early Childhood Education and Care by Socioeconomic Status of Neighbourhoods” with Dan Cloney, John Hattie, Collette Tayler.  Accepted for publication in Early Education and Development.

“Integration of Child Care and Education in Canada: A Comparison with Sweden, New Zealand, England and Wales” International Journal of Early Childhood 42(2): 167-189. Special Issue: National Policies In A Globalised World.  (2013) With Susan Colley

“The Quality of Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Australia” Australasian Journal of Early Childhood 38(2): 13-21.  (2013) With Tayler, C., Ishimine, K., Cloney, D., and Thorpe, K.

“The Nonprofit Advantage: Producing Quality In Thick And Thin Child Care Markets” with Mike Krashinsky. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28(3): 440-67 (2009). 

“New Evidence About Child Care in Canada: Use Patterns, Affordability and Quality” IRPP Choices 14(12), 2008. pp. 2-42.  Co-authored with Barry Forer, Douglas Hyatt, Christa Japel, and Michael Krashinsky


B.A.(Hons), University of King’s College
M.A., University of Toronto
Ph.D., University of Toronto